Chapter 6





Kerala is a highly globalized state and depends on external trade, tourism and remittances from Non Resident Keralites to enhance the economic welfare of the people. At the national level, during the period April-October, 2013, exports incr eased by 6.3 percent, while imports increased by 9.6 percent. This led to a negative trade balance of ` 90682 million US $. Kerala’s contribution to the export sector helps in reducing the country’s trade gap. The significant contribution of inward remittances by Malayalis working in other countries helps in building up the country’s foreign exchange reserves. Kerala has become a “must see” tourism destination for global as well as domestic travelers. This chapter addresses the recent achievements and constraints faced by departments and implementing agencies involved in facilitating trade, tourism and welfare of non resident Keralites.


External Trade


Exports performance of India over the last two years has been affected by continued sluggishness in global trade. An overvalued exchange rate for a prolonged period had also not helped matters. The deceleration in world trade in 2012 is attributed to slow growth in both advanced and emerging market and developing economies. Keeping in view the reduced global demand in general and advanced economies in particular, the Govt. of India announced several measures since June 2012 to promote India’s exports. The depreciation in the exchange rate, both in nominal and real terms, appears to have helped improve India’s exports competitiveness in recent months.


6.2 Major share of trade operations in Kerala is being conducted through Cochin Port. Pepper, cashew, coir and coir products, tea, cardamom, ginger, spices and spices oil and marine products are the main items of trade. During 2012-13, the total traffic handled by Cochin Port declined by 1.2 per cent and reached 198.5 lakh MT. It was 200.9 lakh MT during 2011-12. Import during this period increased to 160.1 lakh MT from the previous year level of 157.8 lakh MT.Exports meanwhile declined to 38.3 lakh MT from 43.1 lakh MT of 2011-12. The fall in exports was 11 percent in quantitative terms. But due to higher price per unit there was an increase of 7 per cent in the value of exports.


6.3 All commodities except sea foods and coir products exported through Cochin Port showed a decreasing trend during 2012-13. Export of tea declined further by 15.3 per cent in 2012-13 than the slight 0.2 per cent decline of 2011-12. Export of Cashew Kernels decreased by 5.8 per cent, coffee by 30.1 per cent and miscellaneous items by 9.4 per cent. The exports of spices nose dived by 93.4 per cent during 2012-13. However, coir products export increased by 15 percent and sea food by a thin rate of 1.9 per cent (Appendix 6.1 ).


6.4 Imports through Cochin port continued to increase during 2012-13 also. It reached at the level of 160. 1 lakh MT during 2012-13 from 157.80 lakh MT of 2011-12, marking a slight increase of 1.5 per cent. Fertilizers and raw materials, iron and steel and machinery, newsprint, raw cashew nut, P.O.L etc. are the main items of import. However, there was no food grains import during 2012-13 through Cochin port. Import of miscellaneous items including P.O.L alone has increased during 2012-13; at the rate of 2.5 per cent, resulting in the rise of total imports. Import of fertilizers and raw materials decreased by 18 per cent and that of iron, steel and machinery by 70.5 per cent, newsprint by 24 percent and raw cashewnut by 1.2 per cent.


6.5 Coastal as well as foreign exports from Cochin port declined during 2012-13 by 5.5 per cent and 14.0 per cent respectively. Coastal export decreased from 14.9 lakh MT of 2011-12 to 14.1 lakh MT in 2012-13, while foreign exports decreased from 28.25 lakh MT in 2011-12 to 24.29 lakh MT in 2012-13. On the other hand both coastal and foreign import increased marginally by 0.73 per cent and 1.8 per cent respectively during 2012-13 (Table 6.1)



Table 6.1

Cargo Handled at Cochin Port during 2007-08 to 2012-13 (In Lakh MT)





































































Source: Cochin Port Trust



Marine Products


6.6 Share of Kerala towards marine exports of India declined during 2012-13. In quantitative terms it was 18.1 per cent in the year ago period but declined to 18.0 per cent in 2012-13. In value terms, the contribution of Kerala went up marginally and stood at 18.2 per cent in 2012-13 from 18 per cent of 2011-12. During 2012-13 Kerala exported 166399 MT marine products valued at ` 343585 lakh vis-à-vis 155714 MT with a value of ` 298833 lakh in 2011-12. Details of marine products exports from Kerala compared to all India in quantity and value for the years 2008-09 to 2012-13 are shown in Table 6.2.


6.7 Marine products exports from India during 2012-13, both in quantity and value, was far larger than the average quantity exported and value earned respectively during the 11th Five Year Plan period ( ie, 2007-12). The average quantity exported during 11th Plan was 699617 MT and the export of 2012-13 was 928215 MT. As such the average value of marine products exports during the 11th Plan was ` 1115522 lakh and the value of 2012-13 was ` 1885626 lakh. In the case of Kerala also the same trend can be seen. The average contribution of Kerala to total quantity of marine exports during 11th Plan was 117744 MT with an average value of ` 193270 lakh whereas Kerala share in total marine exports during 2012-13 is 166399 MT in quantity and ` 343585 lakh in value terms.


 Table 6.2

Export Trend of Marine Products – India & Kerala 2007-08 to 2012-13




KERALA’S share %

Quantity (Tonnes)

Value(Rs Lakh)

Quantity (Tonnes)

Value(Rs Lakh)













































Source: The Marine Products Export Development Agency (MPEDA)


6.8 Commodity wise import through Cochin Port is given in Appendix 6.2. Item wise details of export of marine products from India and Kerala during 2012-13 are given in Appendix 6.3.




6.9 The percentage share of Kerala in cashew kernels export of India, both in value and quantity, which was declining since 2006-07 has shown a reviving trend in 2012-13. Contribution of Kerala in total exports of cashew kernels in India in quantitative terms which stood at 52.5 per cent during 2011-12, increased to 53.6 per cent in 2012-13, whereas in value terms it was 52.4 per cent in 2011-12 and slightly moved up to 52.9 per cent in 2012-13 (Table 6.3). The major markets for Indian cashew kernels during 2012-13 were USA, UAE, Netherlands, Japan, Saudi Arabia UK, France, Spain and Germany. There was considerable increase in exports to countries like Saudi Arabia, Korea, Iran, Malaysia etc.


Table 6.3

Export of Cashew Kernels – Kerala & India (2007-08 to 2012-13) (Qty:MT, Value : Crore)





Share of Kerala (%)

















































*Export through Cochin Port. Source: The Cashew Export Promotion Council of India


6.10 When compared to the 11th Plan average, cashew kernels exports of India declined in quantity and increased in value during 2012-13. Average quantity of exports during the Five Year Plan 2007-08 to 2011-12 was 113722 MT with an average value of ` 3077 crore against 100105 MT and ` 4046 crore respectively of 2012-13.Share of Kerala in total exports also declined in 2012-13 over the average value in quantity but in value terms marked an increase. Average contribution of Kerala during 11th Plan period in quantitative terms was 63991 MT and in value terms ` 1704 crore. Whereas exports in 2012-13 was 53624 MT in quantity and ` 2138 crore in value.


6.11 The export of cashew nut shell liquid/cardanol from India during 2011-12 was 13528 MT with a value of ` 59.5 crore. It declined to 9192 MT valued at ` 29.8 crore in 2012-13. The decrease in quantity is 32 per cent and that of value is 50 per cent. Contribution of Kerala to total export of cashewnut shell liquid from India (through Cochin port) in quantity terms in 2012-13 is 17 per cent and in value terms 14 per cent (Appendix 6.4).


6.12 India imported 892365 MT of raw cashewnut with a value of ` 5331.74 crore during 2012-13 against 809825 MT valued at ` 5338.64 crore of 2011-12. Import through Cochin Port during 2012-13 was 249755 MT and marked a decline of 2 per cent over the 2011-12 quantity of 252771 MT(Appendix 6.2).




6.13 Exports of coffee from India during 2012-13 stood at 299030 MT (Provisional) having a value of ` 4548.3 crore. This shows a decline of 10 per cent in quantity and 2.5 per cent in value over the year ago period in which export was 333181 MT valued at ` 4662.8 crore.


6.14 Export from Kerala through Cochin port during 2012-13 was 80674 MT with a value of ` 902.2 crore. There is a decline of 30 per cent in export in 2012-13 against the quantity of 115359 MT of 2011-12. In value terms the decline was 21.3 per cent, the export value of 2012-13 being ` 1146.3 crore




6.15. The quantity of export of tea though Cochin port during 2012-13 marked a decline of 15.3 per cent over 2011-12. During 2011-12, export of tea was 111137 MT valued at ` 464.7 crore and these figures for 2012-13 was 94165 MT and ` 516.00 crore respectively. Though the quantity of tea export fell down, the value drawn increased by 11 per cent.


Coir and Coir Products


6.16 Export of coir and coir products from India reached the highest ever level during 2012-13. Exports in quantity terms increased by 4.5 per cent over the previous period and stood at 429500.9 MT and in value terms, marking 6 per cent increase, reached ` 1116 crore.


6. 17. Exports of coir and coir products through Cochin port recorded an increase of 15 per cent in quantitative terms and 39 per cent in value terms during the year under review. Quantity of exports which was 122521 MT with a value of ` 4 crore in 2011-12 increased and reached 140882 MT and ` 5.6 crore respectively in 2012-13. Exports of coir and coir products during 2012-13 was higher than the average quantity of exports in 11th Plan period. Main items of exports are coir mat, coir yarn and other coir products. Export trend of coir and coir products through Cochin port for the period from 2008-09 to 2012-13 is shown in the graph (Fig 6.1).


Fig 6.1

Export trend of Coir and Coir Products from Cochin Port

(Lakh MT)


Source: Cochin Port Trust


6.18 China continued to be the major importer for coir and coir products from India, its share increased to 34 per cent in 2012-13 from 30.2 per cent of 2011-12.




6.19 Export of spices through Cochin port sharply decided by 93.42 per cent during 2012-13. The percentage decline in value iscalculated as 57.1 in 2012-13over the previous period. During 2011-12 a total quantity of 114669 MT of spices valued at ` 873.5 crore was exported. It declined to 7550 MT and ` 374.6 crore respectively in 2012-13. Main items of exports through Cochin port include pepper, cardamom, chili, ginger, turmeric, coriander, cumin, celery, fennel, fenugreek, other seed spices, garlic, tamarind, nutmeg & maize, other miscellaneous spices, curry powder/mixture, spice oils and oleoresins and mint products.




Welfare of Non Resident Keralites (NRKs)


6.20 Non resident Keralites play a vital role in the development of the state. Their contribution to the development can be seen at family level, community level and state/country level. At family level it has improved household earnings, food, health, housing and educational standard and at state/country level higher foreign exchange and accelerated economic growth are the result. It is estimated that more than 22.8 lakh emigrants from Kerala are living abroad and that of Kerala emigrants who returned and are living in Kerala is to be 11.5 lakh. The total Non-Resident Keralites is estimated to be 35 lakh. The trend of emigration from Kerala shows that the number of emigrants to 100 households increased from 21 from 1998 to 29 in 2011.The return migrants to the same fraction for the corresponding period is nearly 12 to 15 and the Non-Resident Keralites to the 100 household is increased from 33 to 44 respectively.


Fig 6.2

Trend of Emigration 1998-2011


Source: Report on Kerala Migration Survey,2011,Norka,GoK


6.21 Kerala receives substantial remittances from its emigrants. It is estimated that the total remittances received in Kerala have crossed ` 65000 crore during 2012-13. District wise data on the percentage share of remittances received from abroad shows that Malappuram received highest household remittances followed by Ernakulam and then Kannur. The lowest share is reported from Idukki district. Except Malappuram, Ernakulam, Kannur and Alappuzha, the share of household remittances of other districts declined for the period 2008 and 2011.


Fig 6.3

District wise household remittances


Source: Report on Kerala Migration Survey,2011,Norka,GoK


6.22 Non Resident Keralites Affairs Department was set up by the Government of Kerala in 1996 with the aim of ensuring welfare of the NRKs, redress their grievances and safeguard their rights. Since then, NORKA has been playing a vital role in the lives of NRKs, supporting them in times of need and lending them a helping hand in every possible means. In order to address the rising expectation of our expatriates with regard to delivery of welfare measures/services, Government instituted an agency NORKA ROOTS under Norka Department in 2002.


Box 6.1

Glimpse of Plan Schemes, Services and Own Projects Offered by NORKA ROOTS


 • Santhwana, this scheme is providing financial assistance to NRKs(returnees) whose annual income is below ` 1 lakh for cases like medical assistance, marriage of their children, marriage assistance etc. and 1322 persons were benefitted for the period 2012-13.

• Swapna Saphalyam, the scheme propose to address those NRKs jailed abroad for no wilful default on their part and aims to provide free air tickets when they are released from jails and are not able to afford the tickets.

• Karunyam, fund for meeting the expenditure incurred on repatriation of mortal remains of the NRKs who died abroad or those who died outside the state. During 2012-13, 6 such cases were assisted.

• Pre Departure Orientation Programme, NORKA ROOTs is conducting training programme in every district across Kerala to impart awareness about the chosen country of employment, their culture and labour laws, and matters related to visa stamping, immigration, baggage, customs clearance, financial literacy etc.


• Rehabilitation of Return Migrants, aim of the scheme is to reintegrate returned emigrants by helping them to find suitable employment/ self employment As a step towards the rehabilitation of return migrants, Government have formulated NORKA Department Project for Return Emigrants (NDPREM) to develop a Sustainable Business Model. The project envisages providing a Capital Subsidy of 10 % of the total project cost as a backend subsidy to eligible entrepreneurs among return emigrants who wish to start up their own ventures in the field of agri-business, trading, services and manufacturing.

• Pravasi Legal Aid Cell, major aspect of the mechanism is that Government can extend legal assistance, including appearances in courts abroad, only through the Indian Diplomatic Missions or through advocates empanelled by the Indian Mission. The broad activities coming under this programme are awareness campaign by conducting orientation programmes, support, assistance, facilitation and aid. Legal aid includes legal advice, filing of cases, legal representation etc.

• 24 Hours Help Line/Call Centres, this intended to disseminate information on various schemes/projects implemented by Government and NORKA ROOTS, redress grievances of NRKs, conduct counselling to NRKs who are in distress, create awareness among emigrants and prospective emigrants against illegal exploitation, migration etc. and act as a frontline service facilitator/one point client interaction point for NRKs.

• Skill Upgradation Programme, it is a programme for upgrading the skill of young Keralites’ workforce to meet the challenges in the overseas employment market through 32 training institutes in Kerala.For the period 2012-13 nearly 4000 candidates benefitted under the programme.

• Awareness Campaign on Illegal Recruitment and Visa Check, under which awareness creating to the general public about illegal recruitment and visa cheating.







6.23 Kerala has an active tourism industry which has been accepted as one of the most suitable industries for the state. The state has clear advantage in the industry as it is bestowed with the natural endowments like beautiful hills, valleys, lakes, waterfalls, beaches, backwaters, lagoons and also manmade facilities like national parks and wild life sanctuaries. Further it is endowed with a rich heritage of art, culture, traditional dance forms, festivals, temples, and traditional medicine. The tourism industry is critically important in Kerala’s economy as it is the largest industry creating jobs across national and regional economies. Since 1986, the Government have made deliberate interventions in the industry, for bringing it in the world tourism map by brand building, marketing, and creating infrastructural support. Now the Government strongly advocates bringing in more private investment in the industry. This is explicit in the Tourism Policy announced in 2012.


6.24 Government intervention in marketing, infrastructure support and promoting private sector transformed the industry from barely 50,000 foreign tourist arrivals in 1986, to a status of over 9 million domestic and over 0.7 million foreign tourist visitors in 2012. In 2012, the industry contributed a total revenue of ` 20,430 crore from direct and indirect sources. Tourism plays an important role in driving growth and bringing about economic prosperity in the state.



Growth in tourist arrivals


6.25 Over the past more than one and a half decades, the total number of in-coming tourists increased sharply in Kerala. Between 1997 and 2012, it almost doubled from 51 lakhs to 108 lakhs, registering an annual growth rate of 9.5 per cent. While the number of domestic tourists increased from 49.5 lakhs to over 100.76 lakhs that of foreign tourists increased several times from 1.8 lakhs to 7.93 lakhs over the same period.


6.26 It is significant to note that Kerala is able to capture an increasing percentage of the national pie in foreign tourist arrivals. Its share in India’s foreign tourist arrivals has grown from less than 8 per cent in 1997 to 12.07 per cent in 2012. Clearly, foreign tourist flow has been growing faster in Kerala than at the national level.


Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTA)


6.27 Foreign Tourist arrival to Kerala for a decade starting from 2000 shows an increasing trend. The Foreign Tourist arrival during the year 2012-13 was 7, 93,696. It showed an increase of 8.28 per cent over the previous year. At national level it registered only a 4.5 per cent growth in FTA. Appendix 6.5 gives the details of FTA in Kerala and in India since 2008. Fig 6.4 gives a comparison of growth of foreign tourist arrivals in Kerala.



Fig 6.4

Year Wise Foreign Tourist Arrivals



Source: Department of Tourism


6.28 The single largest source market of Kerala for foreign tourist arrivals is United Kingdom, with a share of about 23.7 percent in 2010, followed by the United States 10.79 per cent. The share of top five countries is shown in Fig 6.5.


Fig 6.5

Share of Top Five Countries in Kerala Tourism




Source: Kerala Tourism Statistics 2010


Domestic Tourist Arrivals

6.29 Domestic Tourist arrival to Kerala during the year 2012-13 was 10,076,854. It shows an increase of 7.41 per cent over the previous year. The percentage changes of year wise domestic tourist visits since 2008 are given in Fig 6.6. Appendix 6.6 illustrates the domestic tourist arrival in Kerala since 2008.


Fig 6.6

Tourist Arrivals Over the Previous Year




Source: Department of Tourism


6.30 As per the 2010 estimation, 71.03 percentages of domestic tourist visits originate from within the state itself. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh and Delhi together contribute 26.31 percentage of domestic tourist arrivals. State wise tourist visits along with percentage share is given in Appendix 6.7.


District Profile


6.31 Tourist arrivals vary significantly across the districts. Ernakulam district received the highest share of Foreign Tourist Arrivals during 2012. Thiruvananthapuram comes the second position. The other districts receive a sizeable share in foreign tourist are Idukki, Alappuzha and Kottayam. Most of the other districts receive a meager share or no share in foreign tourist arrivals. As far as domestic tourist arrivals are concerned, Ernakulam stands first, Thrissur second and Thiruvanthapuram third. Appendix 6.8 and Fig 6.7 shows the share of districts in total tourist visits in the state, both foreign and domestic tourists.


Fig 6.7

Tourist Visits to Districts




Source: Department of Tourism



Economic contribution of tourism in Kerala

6.32 Tourism activities have wider impact on the economy in terms of creating jobs and income for the households through tourists spending in the local economy. The direct contribution of the industry is explicit in Foreign exchange earnings and domestic tourist earnings. Tourism industry is a major contributor of foreign exchange earnings of the state. The foreign exchange earnings during the year 2012-13 were ` 4571.69 crores. Domestic tourist earnings for the year 2012-13 were ` 10883 Crores. The tourism industry in broader terms has great indirect multiplier impact in the economy through backward and forward linkages and also induced impact through spending of benefitted households and firms in the economy. Total Revenue (including direct & indirect means) from Tourism during 2012-13 was ` 20430 Crores, showing an increase of 7.31per cent over the previous year’s figure. The details of Tourism earnings from the year 2008 to 2012 are shown in Table 6.4.


Table 6.4

Earnings from Tourism (2008-2012)



Foreign Exchange Earnings

( crores)

Earnings from Domestic Tourists

( crores)

Total Revenue generated from Tourism (Direct & Indirect)

( crores)






















 Plan Outlay


6.33 The details of State Plan Allocation and Central Financial Assistance for Kerala Tourism from 2007-08 to 2012-13 are given in Fig 6.8 and 6.9, respectively.


Fig 6.8

Allocation By State Government



Fig 6.9

Allocation By Central Government




6.34 The State Government allocation on Tourism sector grows over years and it reached ` 183.20 crores in 2012-13. The Central allocation generally increases except in the year 2011-12. But that steadily increased in 2012-13 and reached ` 78.26 crores. The details of fund allocation of Central and State Government to the tourism sector is shown in Appendix 6.9 and 6.10


Responsible Tourism


6.35 The first thematic conference on Responsible Tourism – The Industry Perspective provided a platform for direct interaction between the demand and the supply sides of Responsible Tourism. It enabled a clear understanding of visitor requirements by service providers, while keeping requisite safeguards in place, such that tourism outcomes could be optimized for mutual benefit. Kumarakom was declared as the first responsible Tourism destination in India by the International Conference on Responsible Tourism held at Kumarakom in 2013. Involvement of local self governments, community groups and NGOs in tourism planning, implementation and operation of tourism products, and creation of employment opportunities for the local population are came true in this destination. RT in Kumarakom and other destinations in Kerala take care the main responsibilities-economic, social and environmental of RT and also contribute to conservation of natural and cultural heritage.


Awards and Recognitions


6.36 Kerala Tourism won 11 awards in total in 2012-13 including national and international awards as well as central Government’s awards. They are Golden Sitigate Award of ITB Berlin, Award in Prag International Advetising Festival, Lonely Planet India Travel Award, Outlook Traveller Award for Kovalam, Outlook Traveller Award, Award of CNBC AWAAZ TRAVEL AWARD 2012, Condenast Travel Readers Travel Award, Times of India Award, Government of India Award for best Website, TTF Kokatha Award


Milestones in Tourism Industry

Visa on Arrival


6.37 The introduction of Tourist Visa-on-Arrival (T-VoA) facility at Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi airports marks a new chapter for Kerala Tourism and will help attract more foreign visitors to the state. Countries like Finland, Japan, Luxemburg, New Zealand, Singapore, Combodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Laos, Myanmar and Indonesia are included in the present list. Apart from that Kerala Tourism has also started efforts to include some major European countries in the list to boost the foreign tourist arrivals to Kerala.


Kerala Sea Plane Project


6.38 Kerala is blessed with abundance of water bodies which are mostly in areas of tourist interest. Kerala Government is rolling out seaplane project for providing connectivity by air to its destinations across the state. The plan is to provide the service initially in prioritized circuit consisting of Ashtamudi, Kumarakom, Bolgatti and Bekal with three Airports as base stations. The project was launched in 2013; although it confronted some setbacks and resistance from densely populated areas. The department is exploring new possible locations for developing the network of the project.


Spice Route Based Tourism Marketing


6.39 Spice route as a base for tourism marketing, Department of Tourism has proposed to activate the spice route destinations in Europe, Midle East and Fareast connecting Muziris. It is a deliberate step to involve a new marketing strategy for kerala Tourism collaborating with major Spice route Countries under the umbrella of UNESCO.


Inland Water Transport Facilities and Tourism Promotion


6.40 As part of developing Inland water tourism from Kollam to Kottapuram, Kerala Tourism started its initiative to set up inland wayside infrastructure facilities through the Alappey mega tourism project with CSF funding and State share to an amount of ` 52.2 crores. This will be the focal point of tourist attraction to Kerala in the coming years.


Adventure Tourism


6.41 Kerala Tourism has taken the initiative to setup an Adventure Tourism Promotion Society to introduce a new branch of tourist attraction via adventure tourism. Elaveezhapoonchira, Ayyampara and Vagamon will be the focal points of adventure tourism activities of Kerala in the beginning.


Muziris Heritage Tourism Project


6.42 Muziris is an ancient port in Kerala. Muziris heritage project was developed to utilize the State’s immense potential in the Heritage tourism sector. Muziris Heritage project today, one of the most successful projects undertaken by Kerala Tourism.


Supporting Organizations

Kerala Tourism Development Corporation (KTDC)


6.43 KTDC is a commercial agency, which is actively participating in building up basic infrastructure needed for the development of tourism in the State. KTDC is running hotels and wayside amenity centres in almost all tourist destinations.


Kerala Tourism Infrastructure Limited (KTIL)


6.44 Kerala Tourism Infrastructure Limited (KTIL) is the agency meant for joint venture projects. Presently there are 4 hotels at Varkala, Kumarakom, Thekkady and Ernakulam sharing with TAJ group. It also oversees the Land Bank Scheme. Investment development at tourism sector conducting of Investors Meet and formation of consultancy cell for tourism development are other major achievements.


Kerala Institute of Tourism and Travel Studies (KITTS) and

Food Craft Institutes (FCIs)


6.45 Kerala Institute of Tourism and Travel Studies is a pioneer organization offering quality education and training in the State. These institutions are actively involved in the recruitment and placing of quality staff in the tourism site throughout Kerala. All aspects of Human Resources Development for the tourism and hospitality sectors are facilitated by KITTS and FCIs by establishing and monitoring the quality regulations of the Tourism and Travel Training Institutes.


District Tourism Promotion Councils (DTPCs)


6.46 The District Tourism Promotion Councils have undertaken the responsibility of creating and marketing local tourism products and opportunities. They are constantly improving the quality standards of these tourism products and services through surveys and other data collection means. The DTPCs also monitor and supervise the levels of sanitation in tourist destinations. Other related activities of the DTPCs are the creation of awareness of the facilities and services in their specific area development of tourism clubs, dissemination of tourism specific information, homestay scheme and development of local basic infrastructure.


Bekal Resort Development Corporation (BRDC)


6.47 Bekal Resort development Corporation Ltd is company formed for the development of Bekal and surrounding touirist attractions. The main focus is to provide marketing resources and to be actively involved in local, regional and state wide marketing promotions.


Directorate of Eco-Tourism

6.48 Kerala is famous for its ecotourism initiatives. The objectives of eco-tourism are to convert entire tourism industry in Kerala into eco-friendly mode, to strengthen Eco-tourism development initiatives in the state and to ensure local community involvement in tourism initiatives leading to employment and income generation. The Directorate of Tourism is pioneering the eco- tourism activities in the State.

Promotion and Publicity


6.49 The Department of Tourism has taken various innovative initiatives in promotion and publicity. The result is evident from the very high growth rate of tourist arrivals which Kerala is witnessing now .As part of the Govt’s aggressive marketing initiatives, new steps were taken to market Kerala Tourism at both the national and international level. Kerala took part in important international tourism fairs like WTM, ITB, FITUR, TOP Resa and TUR and other popular domestic tourism fairs. New emerging markets were identified and Kerala Tourism was marketed there effectively. Roadshows were conducted in Saudi Arabia, Australia, Scandinavia and other European markets like Berlin, Marseille, Milan, Madrid and London. The roadshows were successfully conducted in major cities across India as well.




Slower external demand due to slow growth in both developed and emerging nations has resulted in a slowing down in export from Kerala, tourist arrivals into Kerala, as well as in out-migration from Kerala. Global business cycles have a great impact on this sector and the State’s control over these cycles is minimal. While the benefits of external trade, foreign tourist arrivals and remittances should continue for people in Kerala, concerted efforts to promote domestic trade, encourage domestic tourists and provide gainful employment in the State must be made, so that a crisis can be averted. This will call for high quality infrastructure, better logistics, excellent provision of services, competitive pricing and diversifying into new and hitherto untried markets to hedge risk.