Energy plays a vital role in the socio-economic development and human welfare of a State. An efficient, reliable and sustainable energy supply is a prerequisite for accelerating economic growth and human development. Apart from its contribution to economic development, it contributes significantly to revenue generation, employment, enhancing the quality of life and reducing poverty. Making available the required quantity of power of acceptable quality at affordable price is one among the prime responsibilities of government. For any developing country, therefore, the strategy for energy development is an integral part of the overall economic strategy.

Power Sector in India

In India, electricity from thermal energy is the predominant source of power. It constitutes nearly 67 per cent of the total installed capacity of the country as on August 31, 2017. Contribution of electricity generation from different sources to the national grid, and the comparison to the previous years is given in Table 5.14. As per this, the total installed capacity for power generation in India is 3,29,226 mw. Of late, renewable sources have emerged as the second largest electricity source in the country leaving hydro to the third position.

Table 5.14
All India Installed Capacity as on August 31, 2017
Fuel Installed Capacity (mw)as on 30.9.15 (%) Installed Capacity (mw) as on 30.9.16 (%) Installed Capacity (mw)as on 31.8.17 (%)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Thermal 194,200.00 69.68 213,228.90 69.60 219,490.00 66.67
Hydro 42,283.00 15.17 43,112.43 14.07 44,653.00 13.56
Nuclear 5,780.00 2.07 5,780.00 1.89 6,780.00 2.06
Renewable Sources 36,471.00 13.08 44,236.92 14.44 58,303.00 17.71
Total 278,734.00 100.00 306,358.25 100.00 329,226.00 100.00
Source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA)

In the sector-wise breakup of total energy generation as given in Table 5.15, the contribution of State sector is 81,652 mw (24.8 per cent), Central sector is 1,02,933 mw (31.3 per cent) and Private sector is 1,44,641 mw (43.9 per cent).

Table 5. 15
All India Installed Capacity as on August 31, 2017
Sector Installed Capacity(mw) Percentage (%)
State Sector 8,1652 24.8
Central Sector 102,933 31.3
Private Sector 144,641 43.9
Total 329,226 100
Source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA)

Power Sector in Kerala

Kerala generates power from four sources - hydel, thermal, wind and solar. Of these, hydel and thermal power generations account for the considerable majority whereas wind and solar power generations make only marginal additions. Monsoon is essential to sustain the hydropower base in the State and shortage in rainfall usually creates a power crisis. Yet hydel energy is the most reliable and dependable source of energy in Kerala.

Box 5.11
13th Five-Year Plan Approach - Power Sector

The details of the approach for the 13th Five-Year Plan are given below:

  1. During 13th Five-Year Plan, the aim is to develop domestic capacity for power generation through hydro, solar and wind projects.
  2. Transmission and Distribution network, especially high voltage transmission lines to be strengthened significantly.
  3. Electricity to all households.
  4. During 13th Five-Year Plan, large scale solar power generation will expand substantially. Small scale generating capacity requires a paradigm shift from stand-alone to grid connected systems.
  5. The 13th Five-Year Plan will assist households that still depend on cooking stoves and fuel with substantial emissions to move to clean fuels.
Box 5.12
Kerala - Fully Electrified State

Kerala is always a role model for the rest of the States in the country when it comes to development and progress. Now Kerala has achieved a rare fete by providing electricity to all households. Kerala was declared as a fully electrified State on May 29, 2017 by providing connections to over 1.5 lakh applicants under the ambitious Total Electrification Scheme.

KSEBL has provided electricity connection to all families except 1000 families. This includes 150 families belonging to tribal communities living in dense forest areas. Pending court cases and denial of permission from the Forest Department was the reason behind this.

Capacity Addition in 2016-17

Total installed capacity of power in the State as on March 2017 is 2,961.11 mw. Of which, hydel contributed the major share of 2,107.96 mw (71.19 per cent); while 718.46 mw was contributed by thermal projects, 59.27 mw from wind and 75.42 mw from solar. Figure 5.8 highlights the total installed capacity of Kerala from hydel, thermal and renewable sources.

Figure 5.8
Total Installed Capacity
Source: KSEBL

The total additional capacity added from all sources during 2016-17 was 55.03 mw and scheme wise addition details are presented in Table 5.16.

Table 5.16
Capacity Addition, 2016-17
Sl No Name of Power stations Installed Capacity (mw)
1 Vellathooval 3.60
2 Solar KSEBL, Edayar 1.25
3 Solar KSEBL, Kollengode 1.00
4 Barapole solar canal bank KSEBL 3.00
5 Barapole solar canal top KSEBL 1.00
6 Anert. Kuzhalmandom 2.00
7 IWs RPCKL, Ambalathara Solar park 36.00
8 CIAL- additional 7.18
Total 55.03
Source: KSEBL

Appendix 5.25 shows the details of energy source and its installed capacity during the last five years while sector wise details are shown in Appendix 5.26. Of the total installed capacity of 2,961.11 mw during 2016-17, the contribution of State sector is 2,220.56 mw (74.99 per cent), Central sector 359.60 mw (12.14 per cent)and Private sector 380.95 mw (12.87 per cent). The details of power availability during the last five years are shown in Appendix 5.27.

Kerala's Power Sector Projections

As per the 19th Electric Power Survey conducted by Central Electrical Authority, the projected energy consumption for the next 10 years for Kerala is 25,480 mu (million units, 1 unit=1 kwh) in 2017-18, 29,924 mu in 2020-21, 34,393 mu in 2023-24 and 38,756 mu in 2026-27. Over 10 years therefore Kerala's energy is estimated by this survey to increase by approximately 52 per cent above current consumption.

Performance of Power Sector Agencies

Power development activities in the State are carried out mainly through four agencies viz, Kerala State Electricity Board Limited (KSEBL), Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT), Electrical Inspectorate and Energy Management Centre (EMC). The outlay and expenditure of these departments for the 12th Five-Year Plan and Annual Plan 2017-18 are shown in Table 5.17.

Table 5.17
Outlay and Expenditure in the 12th Five-Year Plan and Annual Plan 2017-18 ( lakh)
Sl No Name of the Department/Agency 12th Five-Year Plan
Annual Plan 2017-18
Outlay Expenditure % Outlay Expenditure up to
Oct 2017
1 KSEBL 658267 520999 79.15 156525.00 76522.29 48.89
2 ANERT 21154 7404 35.00 4830.00 1587.27 32.86
3 EMC 3074 2204 71.7 814.00 186.91 22.96
4 Electrical Inspectorate 2310 1715 74.24 760.00 2.70 0.35
Total 684805 532323 77.73 162929.00 78299.17 48.06
Source: Plan space

In the Annual Plan 2017-18, the amount provided for the energy sector was 162,929 lakh. The total expenditure reported as on October 20, 2017 is 48.06 per cent. Out of this, 156,525 lakh is for Kerala State Electricity Board Ltd. (KSEBL), 4,830 lakh for Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT), 760 lakh for Meter Testing and Standards Laboratory (MTSL) and 814 lakh for Energy Management Centre (EMC). As per expenditure reported in the Plan Space, 78,299.17 lakh i.e. only 48.06 per cent of the total outlay is expended till October 2017. The expenditure reported by KSEBL is 76,522.29 lakh (48.89 per cent), ANERT is 1,587.27 lakh (32.86 per cent), EMC is 186.91 lakh (22.96 per cent) and Electrical Inspectorate is 2.70 lakh (0.35 per cent).

Kerala State Electricity Board Limited (KSEBL)

KSEBL is the driving force behind economic development of the State. It has been responsible for the generation, transmission and supply of electricity in the State, with particular mandate to provide electricity at affordable cost for domestic as well as for agricultural purposes.

In order to comply with the provisions of Electricity Act 2003 and the Government of India directives, the Kerala Government notified a transfer scheme vide GO (M.S) No. 37/2008/PD dated, 25.9.2008 through which all assets and liabilities of KSEB were vested with the State Government. The assets and liabilities were revested with fully owned government company, KSEB Limited under the Indian Companies Act, 1956 on 14th January 2011.


The electricity demand of the State is met through generation from KSEBL, Central Generating Stations (CGS), Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and Traders. KSEBL owns 35 hydroelectric generating stations, 2 thermal power plants and 1 wind farm at Kanjikkode. An additional capacity of 55.03 MW has been added to the system during the year 2016-17 including IPPs thereby increasing the total installed capacity to 2,961.11 MW. Solar plants of capacity 6.19 MW were added to grid from LT/HT Prosumers. (Those consumers who are producers at the same time).

Ongoing Hydro Electric Projects in the State

The details of the ongoing hydro electric projects in the State with expected date of commissioning are given in Table 5.18.

Table 5.18
Ongoing Hydro Electric Projects in the State
Sl No Name of Scheme Installed Capacity (MW) Expected date of commissioning
1 Thottiar HEP 40 June 2020
2 Sengulam Augmentation Scheme 85 MU June 2020
3 Chathankottunada II SHEP 6 Nov 2019
4 Kakkayam SHEP 3 Feb 2018
5 Perumthenaruvi SHEP 6 Commissioned (23.10.17)
6 Peringalkuthu SHEP 24 May-18
7 Bhoothathankettu SHEP 24 Dec-18
8 Upper Kallar 2 Aug-18
9 Pallivasal Extension 60 Dec 2020
Source: KSEBL

The Table indicates that one project has been completed and only one project is expected to be completed in the year 2017-18. Details of other Hydro Electric Projects, which are in the pipeline, are given in Appendix 5.28.

Status of Ongoing Solar Projects

The details of the ongoing solar projects in the State and their present status are given in Table 5.19.

Ongoing Solar Projects in the State
Sl.No Ongoing projects Capacity in KW Status
1 Ettumannoor 1,000 Work in progress
2 Muvattupuzha 1,250 Work in progress
3 Pothencode 2,000 Work in progress
4 Peerumed 500 Work in progress
5 Kuttipuram 500 Work in progress
6 Ponnani 500 Work in progress
7 Nenmara 1,500 Work in progress
8 Kottiyam 500 Under tendering process
9 Mylatty 1,000 Under tendering process
10 Peruthenaruvi 450 Under tendering process
11 IPDS(South, Central and North) 1,120 Under tendering process
12 Distribution Roof Top Buildings 460 Work in progress and nearing completion
13 Transmission rooftop 910 Work in progress and nearing completion
14 5kw rooftop project in 8 schools 40 Under tendering process
15 Implementation of grid tied Roof Top Solar Projects for Government buildings under District Panchayat 1,285.5 Under tendering process
16 MadakkathraChoolissery 1,500 Re-tendering process
Source: KSEBL

Solar Park

The Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) executed a Memorandum of Understanding with KSEBL on February 18, 2015 to develop different types of solar power projects within and outside the State. The proposal for setting up of 200 MW Solar Park at Kasargode District had been given in-principle approval by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) on March 19, 2015. The Government of Kerala accorded sanction for setting up of 200 mw Solar Park at Ambalathara, Kinanoor, Karinthalam, Paivelikai and Meenja villages in Kasargode District. Government of Kerala had also accorded sanction for incorporation of a Joint Venture Company between Solar Energy Corporation of India and KSEBL namely Solar Power Park Developer (SPPD) for the implementation of the project in Kerala. SPPD was incorporated on January 1, 2016. Fifty per cent share capital of 50 lakh from KSEBL has been transferred to the Joint Venture Company. Out of the 200 mw, project of 50 mw has been awarded on October 29, 2015. Further, 50 mw capacity has been added to grid, out of which 14 mw was connected to grid during the current year. However, there has been a reduction in the total area (by 500 acres), which was envisaged for the park. This will have a corresponding capacity reduction in the total solar power generation envisaged from the project.

Pattern of Power Consumption

Kerala's consumption is predominantly domestic, which accounts for 51.18 per cent of the total consumption. Revenue from domestic consumers is only 35.82 per cent of the total revenue. The number of domestic category consumers has increased by 2.70 per cent from 9,124,747 in 2015-16 to 9,371,285 in 2016-17. In 2016-17, a total of 20,087 mu of energy valued at 1,103,587 lakh was sold (internally) showing an increase of 762 mu as compared to the previous year's 19,325 mu. The details of consumption of electricity in Kerala during 2012-13 to 2016-17 are given in Table 5.20 and the details of the pattern of power consumption and revenue collected in 2016-17 are furnished in Appendix 5.29.

As seen in the Table 5.20, the pattern of total consumption of electricity in Kerala has been fluctuating over the years.

Table 5.20
Consumption of Electricity in Kerala
Year Total Consumption of Electricity (MU) Growth Rate (in per cent)
1 2 3
2012-13 16,838
2013-14 17,454 3.65
2014-15 18,426 5.57
2015-16 19,325 4.88
2016-17 20,453 5.84
Source: KSEBL

Electrical Energy Consumption

In Kerala, electrical energy consumption has increased to 20,453 mu in 2016-17 from 19,325 mu in 2015-16 with a per cent increase of 5.84 per cent. Electrical Energy consumption in Kerala during 2012-13 to 2016-17 is depicted in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9
Electrical Energy Consumption in Kerala
Source: KSEBL

Projected Energy Consumption for the next 10 Years for Kerala

Table 5.21 shows the projected energy consumption of the State for the next 10 years. As per the 19th Electric Power Survey by Central Electricity Authority, there will be an increase of 74 per cent in commercial consumption and 60 per cent increase in domestic consumption of Energy in the State by 2026-27.

Table 5.21
Projected Energy Consumption for the Next 10 years for Kerala(in mu)
Particulars 2017-18 2020-21 2023-24 2026-27 Increase over 2017-18
(in per cent)
Domestic 11,123 13,098 15,293 17,805 60
Commercial 3,689 4,497 5,399 6,414 74
Industrial 4,344 4,715 5,086 5,450 25
Agricultural 313 339 365 391 25
Bulk Supply 1,380 1,601 1,839 2,086 51
Public lighting 428 513 605 703 64
Public Water Works 392 437 484 534 36
Railway Traction 231 260 292 335 45
Total 21,900 25,460 29,363 33,718 54
Source: 19th Electric Power Survey by Central Electricity Authority

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

KSEB has entered into PPAs with various Central Generating Stations of NTPC, Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) etc. This includes purchase of 235.38 mw of power from nuclear power stations and 1245.77 mw of power from various thermal stations for 2016-17. As a measure to encourage non-conventional sources of energy, KSEBL has executed PPAs for purchase of power from wind energy projects, Agali (18.60 mw) and Ramakkalmedu (14.25 mw) and from Small Hydro Projects Meenvallam (3 mw), Iruttukkanam (3 mw), Karikkayam (10.5 mw) Ullunkal (7 mw), Iruttukanam (4.5 mw) and Mankulam Mini Hydro (0.11 mw). Power is also being purchased from co-generation plant of MPS steel (10 mw). The capacity allocated from various stations for which the PPAs have been executed is given in Appendix 5.30.

Box 5.13
Renewable Energy Plan

Under the Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPO) as part of the Tariff Policy issued by the Ministry of Power, it is mandatory for States to purchase a certain portion of their electricity needs from solar power plants. States can meet their RPO requirements through purchasing solar, wind or bio-gas generated power.

As per GOI's the new Tariff Policy, KSEBL has to source 14.25 per cent of the total consumption from Renewable Energy sources for 2017-18 of which, solar is to be 4.75 per cent and non-solar 9.5 per cent. In 2018-19, it will be 6.75 per cent solar and 10.25 per cent from Non-solar sources. However, grid can take only up to 20 per cent of the day time demand. So in 2017-18, the requirement is 878 million units of solar (525 mw@19 per cent CUF, and in 2018-19, 1,083 million units (650 mw @ 19 per cent CUF).


Transmission of electricity means a bulk transfer of power over a long distance at high voltage, generally of 110 kv and above. A good transmission system is necessary for effective distribution and also for procurement of power from outside the State. In the transmission sector, many planned works could not be taken up due to land acquisition and right of way related issues. The commissioning of three 110 kv substations, seven 33 kv substations and 143.43 km of lines in the voltage levels above and including 33 kv, capacity addition of 498.8 mva including new substations are the achievements in the transmission side in 2016-17.

Details of Kerala's transmission system consisting of substations and its connected lines are given in Appendix 5.31 and Appendix 5.32.

In the reporting period, the major development in the power scenario of the State especially in the transmission sector is that a long term transmission plan, Transgrid 2.0 has been formulated and approved by the Government including funding commitment. The preparation of a long term transmission plan Transgrid 2.0 is in line with the long term perspective transmission plan of CEA. The initiatives for the construction of a 2000 mw High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) link to Madakathara from Pugalur in Tamil Nadu as part of the planned HVDC link from Raigarh, in Chhattisgarh to Pugalur, for supporting the energy security of the State in the very near future and easing out the prevailing corridor congestion in the New Grid - SR region in general and S1-S2 area in particular was another important stepping stone. The work of Edamon Kochi Line which could be resumed clearing all hurdles after a gap of 19 Months was a significant development in the transmission sector.

Transgrid 2.0

Transgrid 2.0 aims at the long term stability of Kerala Grid so as to ensure quality and reliable power transmission in the State.

Government of Kerala has accorded administrative sanction for the Transgrid 2.0 project at an estimated cost of 6,375 crore over a period of five years. Transgrid 2.0 is planned to be executed mainly in two phases and the third component included is the ‘Green Corridor' project which is eligible for financial support from GOI. The project has been approved for funding of 5,200 crore by KIIFB. Transgrid 2.0 will also be combined with Green Power Corridor Scheme which is being planned for the effective evacuation of power from renewable energy sources like solar and wind (Table 5.22).

Table 5.22
Transgrid 2.0 Project
Voltage Substation Capacity Lines in ctkms
400 kV 5 507
220 kV 24 1,965
110 kV 2,009
Source: KSEBL

Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT & C) Losses

In 2016-17, AT&C loss has increased to 16.30 per cent from 15.71 per cent and transmission and distribution (T&D) loss came down to 13.93 per cent. The corresponding data of AT&C loss for the country is 23.97 per cent. It means that KSEB has made significant achievement in the field of reducing AT&C loss. During the last few years, except in 2016-17, AT&C loss was considerably reduced by way of replacement of faulty meters, intensification of theft detection, installation of new substations and lines, up gradation and modernisation of sub transmission and distribution network through Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP). The impact of AT&C loss reduction during the last five years is shown in Appendix 5.33. (As the T&D losses was not able to capture all the losses in the network, concept of Aggregate AT&C losses was introduced. AT&C loss captures technical as well as commercial losses in the network and is a true indicator of total losses in the system). The trend of AT&C loss and T&D loss during the last 5 years is depicted in Figure5.10.

Figure 5.10
AT and C Loss and T and D Loss (in per cent)
Source: KSEBL

T&D loss has come down marginally by 1.365 per cent from 2012-13 to 2016-17.


In the distribution segment, there are 59,252 km of 11 kV lines, 277,422 km of LT lines and 75,579 distribution transformers. In the financial year 2016-17, a total of 462,237 service connections were given (against the target of 4,00, 000), 1,844.4 km of 11 kV lines (against the target of 3050 km) and 5,356.71 km of LT line (against the target of 3,500 km) were commissioned. The target and achievement of the distribution infrastructure during 2016-17 are given in Appendix 5.34.

Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme (R-APDRP)

The R-APDRP programme is sponsored by Government of India and funded through Power Finance Corporation (PFC). Part – A of the programme is for building up a solid IT infrastructure like data center, wide area network etc. for power utilities. The progress achieved in the implementation of the above project in KSEB is summarised as follows -

  1. Data Center: A full-fledged data centre has been setup in Vydyuthi Bhavanam, Thiruvananthapuram for hosting the software application of KSEB. The complete IT infrastructure includes servers, storage, networking and security systems.
  2. Wide Area Network: As part of establishment of Wide Area Network, about 680 Electrical Sections were connected to the data center through MPLS VPN network. Steps are being taken to connect the remaining electrical sections along with electrical circles and divisions to the data centre.
  3. Centralised Customer Care Services (CCC): Call centre cum customer care center has been setup in Vydyuthi Bhavanam, Thiruvananthapuram and it is functioning since 2014. Around 28 call centre executives work in the above facility to attend complaints/queries from the consumers under various electrical sections all over Kerala. During 2015-16, the incoming calls were 295023 and 248069 complaints were registered and attended through CCC. About 680 electrical sections have been migrated to CCC for reporting/rectification of complaints. A cash deposit machine has been installed in CCC to provide facility for easy bill remittance for consumers. A corporate service centre is functioning at CCC to provide single window payment facility for bulk/corporate consumers.
  4. Web Self Services: This online portal provides facilities like e-payment, bill view, consumption pattern, meter reading history etc. 680 Electrical Sections are attached to the above website for providing consumer services.

Under R-APDRP Part-B, 43 schemes were sanctioned with an outlay of 1,078.3 crore. Works in 40 towns with a total outlay of 530.7 crore are being done departmentally. As on 31.3.2017, works amounting to 444.93 crore were completed. For the balance three schemes namely Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode and Kochi with a total outlay of 547.5 crore, work is being done on turnkey basis. As on 31.3.2017, works amounting to 456.16 crore were completed.

Major achievements of the scheme are; 5 new 33 kV Sub Stations completed, Additional Transformers installed in 4 existing Sub Stations, 19 km 33 kV OH Line constructed, 9 km 33 kV UG Cable laid, 1629 km HT OH line constructed, 1141 km HT UG Cable laid, 629 km HT re conductoring done, 89 km HT ABC installed, 2,846 distribution transformers installed, 270 km LT line constructed, 8,312 km of LT re-conductoring/conversion was done and 411 km LT ABC installed, 13,33,788 single/three phase faulty/mechanical meters replaced with electrostatic meters and 38,811 of street light meters installed.

Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS)

Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS) of Ministry of Power, Government of India aims at improving the distribution infrastructure of urban areas. The scheme includes construction of 33 kV and 66 kV substations, power transformers enhancement, R&M substations, New 66, 33 and 11 kV feeders, 11 KV line re conductoring, ABC Cables (HT&LT), New 11 KV UG Cables, Installation of DTRs, capacity enhancement of DTRs, HVDS, Metering and Solar Power Plants. An amount of 100.95 crore has been received under the scheme. Out of this, expenditure of 6.51 Crore has been incurred during 2016-17.

Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)

This is another programme launched by Ministry of Power for reducing AT&C loss, providing electricity to all households and for ensuring 24x7 power supply. Govt. of India has sanctioned an amount of 485.37 crore on January 5, 2016 for implementing DDUGJY in the 14 districts of Kerala. As per the scheme, 161,199 rural households are proposed to be electrified. Among these, 41,884 numbers belong to BPL category. Work includes construction of 33 kV Substations and 33 kV lines, 11 kV lines and LT lines, installation of distribution transformers, replacement of energy meters, effecting BPL service connections etc. An amount of 86.93 crore has been received for the scheme. Out of this, expenditure of 8.04 crore has been incurred during 2016-17. The ongoing RGGVY scheme is subsumed under this scheme.

The details of financial and physical progress of implementation of DDUGJY/RGGVY are shown in Appendix 5.35.

IT based initiatives of KSEBL

KSEB Limited has envisaged many IT based initiatives towards the objective of enhancing the quality of power distribution system and to address the concerns of the customers State wide. In alignment to this objective, two IT based initiatives have been developed and rolled out recently.

1. Urja Doothu, the Outage Management System.

This provides free information to the consumers via SMS about the outages due to planned shutdowns/breakdowns. The expected duration of the outages are informed to the customers in advance. Information about unexpected outages are also disseminated to the customers. Prior information of outages will help the customers to plan their activities accordingly. Information about unexpected outages will alleviate the confusion of customers during the outage. Launched on October 25, 2016, SMS triggered up to 2017 January is 4,872,093.

2. Urja Sowhrida, the Bill Information System.

This is to disseminate electricity bill information like bill amount, due date, disconnection date etc to the customers via SMS and e-mail. As soon as the bill is prepared in the Centralised Billing System, information like bill amount, due date, disconnection date etc is disseminated to the customers via SMS and e-mail. In order to aid the customers further, reminder SMS is sent before the disconnection date in case of non-payment. Timely intimation of bill information helps the customers to make prompt payments. Thus the last minute hustle on remitting the bill amount, disconnection of power supply and associated inconveniences etc are avoided. Reminder SMS before the disconnection date in case of non-payment is appreciated by the customers. Launched on October 25, 2016, SMS triggered upto January 2017 is 11, 62,201.

Demand Side Management Activities

Vigilance and Security Wing and Anti Power Theft Squad (APTS)

Vigilance Wing is constituted to effectively combat corruption and misconduct on the part of officers/employees of KSEBL. Anti Power Theft Squad (APTS) is constituted under Inspector General of Police to detect pilferage and misuse of electricity all over the State of Kerala.

Achievements in 2016 -17

In 2016-17, total petitions received from various sources were 993. Out of 993 petitions, Vigilance Wing completed enquiry and submitted report on 714 cases.

In 2016 -17, Anti- Power Theft Squad (APTS) conducted 31,706 inspections all-over the State. Out of this, 194 cases of power theft were detected and a total assessment of 495,501,027 was made. In connection with the above, 220,890,875 could be realised from the erring consumers.

Achievements of KSEBL in 2016-17

  1. Vellathooval SHEP (3.6 mw) commissioned.
  2. 3 No's of 110 kV Substations and 7 No's of 33 kV substations were commissioned.
  3. 73.96 ckt. km of 110 kV lines and 63.37ckt. km of 33KV lines were added. Total transmission capacity added including new was 280.5 MVA
  4. 46,2237 new service connections was given and 2,270 No's of new distribution transformers were installed.
  5. 1,844 km of 11 kv line and 5357 km of LT line were constructed, completed Phase conversion of 2,281km and re-conductoring of 15,025 ckt. km.
  6. 4,69,285 No's of faulty meters were replaced.
  7. Solar Projects added - Kollengode substation (1 mw), Edayar substation (1.25 mw), Barapole canal top (3 mw), Barapole canal bank (1 mw), Padinjarethara dam top (440 kw), Gen.stations roof top (700 kw), others (65 kw).

Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT)

Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT) is an autonomous body under the Power Department, Government of Kerala. ANERT is the nodal agency for the implementation and propagation of non-conventional sources of energy in the State. It is also the Nodal Agency for the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources (MNRE), Govt. of India, to carry out the Central Government programmes in Kerala.

The programmes taken up by ANERT includes solar photovoltaic programmes, solar thermal programmes, wind energy programmes, biogas programmes, improved chulha programmes, publicity and awareness programmes. The assistance from Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India is also available for these schemes based on MNRE guidelines. The outlay and expenditure of the ANERT is given in Table 5.23.

Table 5.23
Outlay and Expenditure of ANERT ( in lakh)
Sl No Schemes 12th Five-Year Plan
Annual Plan 2017-18
Outlay Expenditure % Outlay Expenditure %
1 Programmes on Renewable Energy 3,065.00 313.76 10.24
2 Renewable Energy Public engagement, outreach, studies and development 1,765.00 108.91 6.17
3 Renewable Energy Programmes of ANERT 8,150.00 4,796.51 58.85 373.32
4 Electrification Programme using Renewable Energy Sources 11,328.00 2,395.08 21.14 895.32
5 Resource Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources 500.00 51.17 10.23
6 Testing and Innovation, lab facilities and other Infrastructure 500.00 80.86 16.17
7 Training, Extension and publicity 176.00 80.46 45.72
8 Micro - Hydel Projects 250.00 0.00
9 Wind Energy Projects 250.00 0.00
Total -ANERT 21,154.00 7,404.08 35.00 4,830.00 1,691.31 35.02

Achievements of ANERT

  1. 2,197 biogas plants and 144 community chulha installed
  2. Solar water heating systems of collector area 9,519 sq m has been installed. These solar water heating systems are capable for producing 630,000 litres of hot water per day.
  3. 2,761 nos. of domestic chullah installed
  4. 2 Solar power plant of 1 kw set up.
  5. 2,316 Solar home lighting systems and equal number of Solar Lantern provided.
  6. Off grid Solar smart programme 2016-17 - installed 664 nos of capacity - 1349 kw

Energy Management Centre (EMC)

Energy Management Centre (EMC) is the State designated agency of Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power, Government of India for promoting energy conservation, energy efficiency and enforcing Energy Conservation Act, 2001 in Kerala. EMC also promotes small/mini/micro hydel schemes. SHP Cell constituted by Government of Kerala under Power Department is also attached in EMC to give impetus for development of SHPs through Private Participation (Table 5.24).

Table 5.24
Outlay and Expenditure of EMC ( in lakh)
Sl No Schemes 12th Five-Year Plan
Annual Plan 2017-18
Outlay Expenditure % Outlay Expenditure %
1 State Energy Conservation Awards 98.00 93.00 94.90 25.00 9.12 36.48
2 Energy Conservation Activities 670.00 658.97 98.35 345.00 104.81 30.38
3 Infrastructure Development and Institutional Strengthening 1,200.00 1,080.00 90.00 72.00 25.29 35.13
4 Kerala State Energy Conservation Fund 441.00 356.59 80.86 372.00 47.69 12.82
5 Safe disposal of CFL 25.00 15.00 60.00
6 Small Hydro Power Development (RIDF) 640.00 0.00 0.00
Total - EMC 3,074.00 2,203.56 71.68 814.00 186.91 22.96

Achievements of Energy Management Centre

  1. Energy conservation efforts in the State during the year 2016-17 saved 300 mu of electricity, 3,192 mt of oil and 4,100 mt of coal.
  2. Conducted 29 energy conservation programme for Industries.
  3. 1,020 Energy Conservation Programme for Educational Institutions.
  4. As a part of the National Energy Conservation Day, Energy Conservation rally was conducted in 140 Centres, Public awareness campaign was conducted in 14 District headquarters, Energy Conservation Day celebrations and awareness campaigns was held at 19 PSUs and 8 Engineering Colleges and Energy Clinic Programme was conducted at 19 Centres across the State.
  5. As a part of the Energy Clinic Programme, 700 women across 14 districts were given training and 1,081 Energy Clinics were conducted all over Kerala.
  6. As a part of URJAKIRAN 2016-17, a total of 304 awareness programs were conducted covering all the 140 Constituencies in Kerala in association with NGOs.
  7. 2278 awareness classes were taken by trained resource persons (RPs)
  8. EMC participated/organised 12 exhibitions on energy conservation.
  9. As a part of Smart Energy Programme, 4270 schools from 41 Educational Districts were enrolled with over 2 lakh students being part of the scheme. 41 Sensitisation camps, 37 Oorjolsavam competitions and 14 district level programs were conducted
  10. Kerala State Students Energy Congress, 2017 was conducted for winners of District Level competitions at High School and Upper Primary level in 4 different competitions.
  11. 3 R&D projects and 16 student projects on Energy Conservation and Management were provided financial and technical assistance.
  12. 70 Schools in the State were made energy efficient by providing them equipment like 5 star rated ceiling fan, LED bulbs, T5 LED tubes etc.
  13. Developed Energy Conservation Tip Sheet for ITI/Diploma students
  14. EMC implemented 30 picohydel projects of 1 kw capacity at various remote locations in Kerala.
  15. Hon. Chief Minister of Kerala inaugurated the 8 mw Pathamkayam Small Hydro Power Project, which was allotted under BOOT Scheme.
  16. Chittainkara Panchayat in Ernakulam District becomes Energy Efficient Panchayat
  17. EMC won the 3rd Best designated agency award, constituted by Ministry of Power, Government of India.

Department of Electrical Inspectorate

The Electrical Inspectorate is functioning under the Ministry of Power, Government of Kerala. Safety inspections are carried out and sanction for energisation for all HT/EHT and other medium voltage installation in the State are issued by this department. The motto of Meter Testing and Standards Laboratory (MTSL) is to provide testing and calibration of various types of electrical equipment. At present, calibration facilities is available for voltage, current, resistance, frequency, power, power factor and energy. The testing facilities include pre-commissioning tests for protection relays and instrument transformers. Also, pre-commissioning tests are conducted for power transformers, cables and circuit breakers. All calibrations and tests are conducted as per national and international standards. Enquiry of all electrical accidents occurring in the State and forwarding the enquiry report to the Government and taking actions against responsible person/authority are also done by this department. Table 5.25.

Table 5.25
Outlay and Expenditure of Electrical Inspectorate ( lakh)
Sl No Schemes 12th Five-Year Plan
Annual Plan 2017-18
Outlay Expenditure % Outlay Expenditure %
1 Meter Testing and Standards Laboratory (MTSL) 1,910.00 1,415.38 74.1 380.00 0.39 0.10
2 Effective Implementation of QCO 400.00 300.08 75.02 200.00 1.35 0.68
3 E- safe Kerala 180.00 0.95 0.53
Total 2,310.00 1,715.46 74.26 760.00 2.69 0.35

Achievements of Electrical Inspectorate

  • Electrical Safety Awareness Programmes were organised extensively; which helped in reducing fatal electrical accident rate by 30 per cent.
  • National Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) for electro technical calibration is maintained in Meter Testing and Standards Laboratory, Thiruvananthapuram.
  • SEVOTHAM CERTIFICATION (Service Quality Management System Certification) as per I.S.15700 : 2005 from the Bureau of Indian Standards is maintained.
  • Effective implementation of Quality control order, 2003. Inspection and awareness among traders is done.
  • Construction of additional two floors in the existing Meter Testing and Standards Laboratory, Thiruvananthapuram incorporating accident prevention and monitoring cell.
  • Eleven Regional Meter Testing and Standards Laboratories have been started in the State.
  • Step has been taken for setting up of lab facility for testing of solar equipment for the effective implementation of Kerala Solar Policy, 2013.
  • Fully Automatic Energy Meter Test bench (Minimum 10 Position) of accuracy class 0.05 or better has been procured at Regional Testing laboratories, Ernakulam and Kozhikode.
  • Compact System for testing LED has been procured.
  • Organised an International Conference on Electrical safety and conducted an Exhibition on Electrical Safety.
  • Online remittance of all fees (Inspection fee, duty fee, other fees) through E-Treasury portal has been started in all districts.

Kerala State Electricity Regulatory Commission (KSERC)

The Kerala State Electricity Regulatory Commission (KSERC), a statutory organisation of quasi-judicial nature, was established in 2002. The Commission has been taking all efforts to maintain a fair, transparent and objective regulatory system in the Power Sector of the State.

Important activities of the KSERC in 2016-17

In 2016-17, the Commission held 68 hearings for the disposal of the petitions filed before the Commission. In addition, the Commission held a number of routine internal meetings to transact business relating to administrative matters, framing and finalisation of regulations, admission of petitions, ARR and ERC of the licensees and other matter related to the day to day functioning of the Commission.

During the period, Commission received 57 petitions related to the ARR and ERC and truing up of the KSEB and other licensees. The Commission issued orders on 51 petitions (including 29 pending petitions).

Consumer Grievance Redressal Forum (CGRF) has been established under the Electricity Act 2003, for the redressal of the grievances of the consumers. During the period, CGRF received 634 petitions and disposed 584 petitions (including 197 pending petitions).

Electricity Ombudsman is a statutory authority appointed by the KSERC to redress the grievance of consumers aggrieved by non-redress of grievance by the Consumer Grievance Redressal Forum. During the period, Ombudsman has received 103 petitions and disposed 136 petitions (including 61 pending petitions).

The following regulations were published in 2017-18.

  1. Kerala Electricity Supply Code (Removal of difficulties) dated October 26, 2016
  2. Kerala Electricity Supply Code (Amendment) dated January 24, 2017
  3. KSERC (Terms and Conditions of Determination of Tariff amendment regulations 2017) dated March 20, 2017
  4. KSERC (Conduct of Business amendment regulations 2017) dated July 26, 2017.
Box No 5.14
13th Five-Year Plan - Constitution of Working Group on Energy

In connection with the preparation of 13th Five-Year Plan for the State, Working Group on Energy was reconstituted with Sri. Paul Antony IAS, (Additional Chief Secretary to Government, Department of Power)and Sri Prabir Purkayastha (President Centre for Technology and Development, New Delhi/Chairperson Knowledge commons), as Co-Chair. The committee had eminent experts from various areas related to energy. The major recommendations of the Report are as follows:

  1. Generation
    The existing demand and the Projected Demand are 4200 mw and 5400 mw respectively. To meet this, targets from hydro including small and mini is 300 mw,Solar-Grid connectedis 600 mw, Roof top Solar is 500 mw and Wind is 100 mw.
  2. Distribution
    100 per cent Electrification, a target of 18,000 km of 11 kV Lines during next Five-Year Plan, i.e., 3,600 km/year, Reconstruction (10,000 km of old 11 kV lines), New constructions (3,000 km)and construction of 5000 km of new 11 kV lines.
  3. Transmission
    New substations and transmission lines proposed are: Three 400 kV new substations at
    1. Neeleswaram, Mylaty, (2*500 MVA),
    2. Kottayam, Ettumanoor (2*315 MVA) and
    3. Kollam, Kundara (2*315 MVA), capacity addition of transformer (1*315) in Kozhikode 400 kV substation and HVDC 2000 MW Madakatara by PGCIL and long term transmission plan Transgrid 2.0. Target of AT&C loss is 10 per cent
  4. Other Recommendations:
    • Small wind turbines to be used on an experimental basis to test their feasibility.
    • Policies and institutional arrangements to be designed to induct large scale solar energy into the system or as stand alone systems.
    • Government buildings, including local body head quarters, schools and colleges, to be equipped with roof top Solar PV systems.
    • An aggressive plan for building pumped storage to be taken up to provide the necessary flexibility.
    • Smokeless chulhas, biogas plants etc to be encouraged to provide more efficient combustion and therefore less damage to the health of the people, particularly women.
    • Focus on energy conservation and electrical safety.

Way Forward

The State needs to overcome many challenges in the coming years. A significant one is the need to ramp up the shift to energy from renewable energy sources in accordance with Central government policies. Other challenges ensue from a steady transformation of the structure of the power sector brought about by changes in the regulatory regime at the national and State level. Such changes are challenging especially in the context of the State's vision of keeping all aspects of the power sector predominantly in the public sector and the State's overall vision of inclusive growth and development.


As a part of transforming Kerala into a power sufficient State, conscious effort is evidently necessary on the part of the power sector agencies. Electricity generation from wind, solar photovoltaic, small and medium hydro projects should be encouraged. There is also a need to improve the performance of power sector agencies by formulating and implementing innovative schemes which will attract more capital inflows and more useful projects in the sector. An integrated approach involving institutional changes, increased generation capacity, increased production of renewable energy, demand side management and energy conservation activities are needed in the future, along with a vision of a leading, yet facilitative, role for the public sector in this sector.