Chapter 5






Infrastructure is often referred to as the building blocks for growth and development of an economy. Unless there are adequate and affordable transport facilities, mobility of people as well as that of goods and services is severely constrained. Poor logistics increases costs within the State and results in unequal economic and social benefits to hilly and remote areas. Availability of affordable energy is a pre-requisite for well being of people as well as for the economy to function seamlessly. Rapid and smooth communication through effective use of telecommunication and Information Technology is essential to ensure that Kerala’s advantages as a globally connected State are fully tapped. This chapter brings out the constraints faced by Kerala in developing world class infrastructure and also brings out the efforts made by various agencies of Government in improving transport related infrastructure such as roads, railways, inland waterways and coastal shipping. Other critical infrastructure viz. Energy, Communication Infrastructure, Other Urban Infrastructure etc. are also dealt with in detail. The Government’s thrust to development of IT and related Sports infrastructure has also been brought out in this Chapter.





Presence of quality infrastructure is vital for social, economic and industrial development of the country. The Transport infrastructure in Kerala largely consists of roads, railways, air and inland water. Roads occupy a prime position because even for using other modes of transport, roads are needed.


5.2 Transport infrastructure of the State consists of 2.43 lakh Km of road, 1148 Kms of Railways, 1687 Kms of Inland Waterways and 111 statute miles of Airways and 18 Ports.


5.3 The most important challenge in the road sector involves building all weather roads connecting each and every village. Even though Kerala is comparatively better placed than most other States, as regards road length, the condition of many of these roads is very poor. Therefore, the main emphasis under road development in Kerala has been on improvement and upgradation of existing roads rather than construction of new roads. The investment need in the road sector is of high magnitude that are beyond the resources available with the Government. Therefore, there is an imperative need to motivate private and other non-governmental agencies/corporate sectors to participate in road construction and upgradation of selected highways.


State Road Network


5.4 The outlay and expenditure in the Transport sector during 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14 is given in the Table. 5. 1


Table 5.1

Outlay and Expenditure in Transport Sector during 2011-12 to 2013-14(` lakhs)

Sl. No.

Sub Sectors

Annual Plan 2011-12

Annual Plan 2012-13

Annual Plan 2013-14






Expenditure 09.2013


Port Dept


21919.72 (114.8%)


26831.6 (96.6%)


388.69 (4.9%)


Roads and Bridges


166196.19 (265%)


173039.91 (332.4%)


81545.60 (95.41%)


Road Transport


4811.90 (90.5%)


5812.28 (78.28%)


4651.78 (78.93%)


Inland Waterways


2384.26 (21%)


3225.71 (24.2%)


257.26 (1.9%)


5.5 The major development indicators of transport and communication sector in the State since 2008 are given in Appendix5.1. On the road front, traffic has been growing at a rate of 10 to 11 percent every year, resulting in excessive pressure on the roads of the State. Total road length in Kerala during 2012-13 increased to 243373.398 Kms. Road density in the State is 390 Km/100 and it is ahead of the national average of 131 km/100 The length of road per lakh population is 728 km. The roads maintained by different Panchayats has also increased by 72.92 percent in 2012-13. Roads maintained by different agencies are given in Table 5.2 and category of road network in Kerala is shown in Fig 5. 1.


Table 5.2

Agency wise distribution of State roads in Kerala during 2012-13


Name of Department

Length (Km)































Others (Railways, KSEB)







Source : Various Departments


Fig 5.1

Agency wise distribution of State roads in Kerala during 2012-13



5.6 Out of the total road length of 177466.257 Km held by Panchayats, 52636.277 Km (29.66%) are black topped and 77223 Km (43.5%) are gravelled. Out of the total roads maintained by PWD 31811.601 Km, Kottayam District has the major share with a length of 3449.301 Km (10.8%). Wayanad District has the lowest share 1029.305 Km (3%). Details of district wise length of roads maintained by PWD (R&B) as on 31.03.2013 is given in Appendix 5.2.


5.7 As on 31.03.2013 there were 2240 bridges and 51360 culverts on the PWD roads. Of them 85 Nos of bridges need reconstruction/renovation and 1591 culverts are not in good condition. More details are available in the Appendix 5.3, Appendix 5.4,  Appendix 5.5 and Appendix 5.6.


Major Activities of PWD (R&B) during 2012-13 is given in the Box 5.1


Box 5.1

Major Activities of PWD (R&B) during 2012-13

 Length of Roads Completed/ Constructed

• Resurfacing of State Highways

• Resurfacing of MDR

• Resurfacing of Rural Roads

• Resurfacing of BM & BC completed



Bridges Completed

• State Highways

• Major District Roads

• NABARD Assisted

• Anti-recession Stimulous Package




308.60 KM

1721.36 KM

147.56 KM

960.82 KM

3138.34 KM









5.8 Government of Kerala vide G.O. (P) No. 13/2012/PWD dated Ist February 2012, has made it mandatory to follow Indian Road Congress (IRC) standards and Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MoRTH) specification for road works in Kerala. Kerala Public Works Department Manual has also been revised and the revised Edition 2012 has been brought effective with effect from 01.04.2012.


State Planning Board has published a Report of the Technical Committee on Road and Road Safety under the Chairmanship of Sri. E. Sreedharan, Member, State Planning Board and former Managing Director, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. The major recommendations of the Report are given in the Box 5.2


Box 5.2

Major Recommendations of the Technical Committee on Road and Road Safety

• Technical Standards and Specifications – Use of rubberised bitumen and waste plastic in pavement laying will have advantages – technical and financial – and should unreservedly be encouraged.

• Formation of a Highway Department – Three independent wings in the proposed Highway Department, (1) for repairs and maintenance of the existing road network plus for minor capital works costing up to `5 crore. (2) exclusively for the National Highways and (3) for all development works more than `5 crore.

• Work Culture – A technical department like Roads & Bridges should not have a huge strength of non-technical staff. There is need for down-sizing the non technical strength and increasing the proportion of Engineering staff.

• Resource Crunch – With a view to upgrade the road infrastructure, it is necessary to set a target of `2000 crore for capital works and `1000 crore for road repairs and maintenance every year for the next five years. Hence a progressive and workable model concession agreement should be created to suit the state.

• Highway Development Fund – To meet the expenditure on road development and to reduce dependence on borrowings, a non lapsable and non fungible ‘Highway Development fund’ is essential. The State Government has recently taken a decision to levy 5% cess on the Diesel and Petrol sold in the State to fund transportation projects. Through this cess, the State can mop up `1000 crore per annum. 50% of this levy should go to the Highway Development Fund and the remaining 50% for Urban Transport Projects.

• Road Safety – For the Transport Commissioner to be effective as Road Safety Commissioner the Government should ensure that a very competent and dynamic police officer with impeccable integrity and track record is selected to the post and allowed to remain in the post at least for a period of 5 years.



Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP)


5.9 The KSTP is implementing the Kerala State Transport Project –Phase II. During the period, project preparation of the following five roads has been completed.


• Kasaragod – Kanghangad Road 27.70 Km

• Pilathara – Pappinisserry Road 20.90 Km

• Thalassery – Valavupara Road 53.20 Km

• Chengannur – Ettumanoor – Muvattupuzha Road 88.00 Km

• Punalur – Ponkunnam Road 50.20 Km


5.10 World Bank’s approval for loan assistance of US $216 million was obtained. The bidding process for five road sections in the project was completed and three major road improvement works in the North Zone has been already started during the period. In addition to the KSTP work, as per the direction of the State Government, road upgradation works, heavy maintenance works and surface renewal works to the old RMC roads under the state budget are also taken under the project.


Kerala Road Fund Board


5.11 The Thiruvananthapuram City Road Improvement Project implemented by Kerala Road Fund Board involves development of more than 42 Kms of roads in the capital city and its maintenance for 15 years after construction. By developing well designed roads of better quality and aesthetic appearance the project has given a face lift to the capital city. The concessionaire was responsible for all investments and they are paid a fixed amount as annuity, the pay out of which is spread over a period of 15 years. Hence it is proposed to give more thrust for implementing infrastructure development projects with Public Private Partnership on BOT –Annuity mode. A few such projects in pipe line are given below.


• SPEEID KERALA- The Government have formulated the project of constructing flyovers, bridges and roads at selected areas in the State in order to reduce the increasing traffic congestion. The project named as ‘SPEEID KERALA’ comprises of 23 projects at the estimated cost of Rs 10,000 Crore.

• Kottayam – Cherthala Tourist Highway – The project aims at the development of the interior areas of Kuttanad as well as promotion of tourism.

• Thiruvananthapuram City Road Improvement Project Phase II- It is proposed to take up the second phase of Thiruvananthapuram City Road Improvement Project aiming at the development of some more roads on BOT- Annuity mode

• Kozhikode City Road Improvement Project – The land acquisition for developing seven roads coming under phase I of KCRIP is nearing completion. Action is in progress to bid out the works of development of 6 roads under PPP mode as in the case of Thiruvananthapuram City Road Improvement Project.

• Detailed Project Reports have been prepared for implementing City Road Improvement Projects in Kottayam, Thrissur, Malappuram and Kannur and action is also in progress for preparing DPR for Kochi and Kollam city road improvement projects.


State Road Improvement Project (SRIP)


5.12 Road Infrastructure Company Kerala Limited is a special purpose vehicle incorporated under Indian Companies Act, 1956 by Kerala Road Fund Board. As per G.O. (MS) 91/2012/PWD dated 06.12.2012 GoK has accorded Administrative Sanction to State Road Improvement Project (SRIP) under two packages ie, the Rehabilitation Package under Annuity mode and the Upgradation Package with funding from multilateral funding agencies. The Rehabilitation package is intended to improve 551 Kms of roads on Public Private Partnership Annuity mode and the Upgradation Package is designed to improve 600 Kms of road by including land acquisition wherever needed for geometrical corrections and junction improvements.


Research and Development in Road Sector


5.13 Research and Development activities have an important role to play in meeting the challenges of modernising the road system, technology upgradation and finding cost effective solutions to infrastructure problems in general. Design, Research, Investigations and Quality Control Board (DRIQ Board), Kerala Highway Research Institute (KHRI) and National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC) are engaged in research and Development of the road sector.


(a) DRIQ Board


5.14 In 2012-13 the design wing of DRIQ Board has completed 25 numbers of structural design. The Bridges Design Wing has completed structural design of 53 numbers of bridges and 50 numbers of general design and 19 numbers of detailed design. The research and project preparation unit of DRIQ Board has completed 11 project preparation works during 2012-13.


(b) Kerala Highway Research Institute


5.15 Kerala Highway Research Institute is the South Zone Regional Office of quality control wing for quality control assurance of all works undertaken by PWD. KHRI conducts training programmes for technical and non technical staffs of PWD. The functioning of the Institute is under four divisions. The activities of KHRI during 2012-13 is given Box 5.3


Box 5.3

Major Activities of KHRI during 2012-13

• DPR preparation of Ernakulum – Sabarimala Road

• Research Work – Study on periodically distressed road stretches in Thiruvananthapuram

• Study on locally available steel reinforcing bars

• Development of NH 47 – Conversion of existing two lane road to four/six lane from Karamana to Kaliyikkavila, total station survey at Kaimanam to Balaramapuram.



 (c) National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC)


5.16 The objective of NATPAC is to conduct Research and Development and extension activities in the field of transportation and allied areas. The broad areas of activities of NATPAC includes transportation, planning and road safety, regional transportation, highway planning and development, traffic management, water transport and providing consultancy services to various user agencies in the domain area. 


5.17 During the year 2012-13, NATPAC has carried out 20 plan programmes, 25 externally funded projects and road safety programmes sponsored by Kerala Road Safety Authority (KRSA) and brought out several road safety training materials. The plan programmes are mostly R&D projects addressing the traffic and transportation issues of the State. The externally funded projects are need based studies entrusted to NATPAC by government agencies like PWD, Transport, Tourism, Water Resources, Town Planning Departments and other Organisations like Kochi Metro Rail Company, National Highway Authority of India (NHAI), Roads and Bridges Development Corporation Kerala (RBDCK) etc. Research studies undertaken by NATPAC have led to the formation of design standards and guidelines for constructing better quality roads by using modern construction techniques.


Road Transport Services


5.18 Road Transport is the dominant mode of transport for moving goods and passenger traffic. Road transport acts as the feeder service to the rail traffic, air traffic and ports and harbours. The vehicle density of the State during 2012-13 is very high compared to many other States in India. Road transport industry is dominated by private service providers. The road freight services are wholly owned and operated by the private sector.

5.19 Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) is the largest single public sector undertaking, which carries out transport operations in the State. The passenger transport operation in Kerala is mainly carried out by private operators. Inter-State analysis shows that in respect of load factor, passenger lead and passenger per bus per day, performance of KSRTC is above average.


5.20 Out of 5812 buses of KSRTC 1373 ( 24 %) buses are ten or more years old. The age wise details of KSRTC buses are given in Appendix 5.13. The number of schedules operated as on 31.03.2013 has increased from 5333 to 5567 in 2012-13. The Corporation operated its bus service to distance of 6158.39 lakh Kms during 2012-13. About 12187.53 lakh passengers travelled in KSRTC buses during this period. The major indicators showing operational efficiency of KSRTC is given in Appendix 5.14


5.21 The service operations of KSRTC rose from 15.06 lakh Kms per day in the previous year to 15.21 lakh. The average monthly collection of the Corporation increased from 119.73 crore in 2011-12 to 131.08 crore in 2012-13. During the period, 488 new buses were put on the road.


5.22 The fares charged by KSRTC ranged from 58 paise per Km in ordinary and city buses during 2012-13. KSRTC enhanced its fares 65 paise per Km for super fast, 80 paise to super deluxe service , 100 paise for A/C Air Bus and 120 paise for High Tech Volvo Buses. The fare structure of KSRTC is given in Appendix 5.16.


5.23 Inter Unit analysis of KSRTC reveals that about 30% of the units of the State exhibit poor performance. The unit wise details of operational statistics are given in Appendix 5.17.


5.24 Financial performance of KSRTC is not in tune with its physical achievements due to increase in operating expenditure, hike in pension commitments, increase in interest payments, operation in uneconomic routes and granting concessional travel add loss to the Corporation.


5.25 Though the occupancy ratio in KSRTC has increased from 67.14% in 2009-10 to 76.4% in 2011-12, it is not appreciable considering the higher occupancy in private carriages and inadequate road infrastructure in Kerala that result for lesser use of private mode of transport. Though there are only 172 buses per 10 lakh population in Kerala, the fleet utilisation is only 82.7 percent and more than 12 percent of the buses are under repair ; and 28.8 percent of the vehicles were over aged. Staff per bus ratio is as high as 6.95. The number of breakdowns per lakh kilometres in KSRTC is around 6 while that of neighbouring Karnataka RTC (KnRTC) and BMTC are less than one. Other internal indicators of KSRTC is given in Box 5.4. More details are available in the Appendix 5.15 and 5.18.


Box 5.4

Internal Indicators of KSRTC during 2012-13

• Staff productivity (Kms/staff/day)

• Vehicle productivity (Kms/bus/day)

• Fuel Efficiency (Km/litreof HSD)

• Passengers carried/bus/day (nos)

• Loss per kilometre (`)

• Loss per bus per day (`)

• Staff cost as % of total cost

• Fuel & lubricant cost as % of total cost

• Interest cost as % of the total cost

• Tax cost as % of total cost













Motor Vehicle Population


5.26 The growth of vehicle population is Kerala is 17 percent over the previous year. The growth of Motor Vehicles since last six years is shown in Fig 5.2.


Fig 5.2

Growth of Motor Vehicles



5.27 The number of motor vehicles having valid registrations as on 31.03.2013 is 80,48,673 as against 68,65,539 in the previous year. The newly registered vehicles comes to 11,57,416 during 2012-13. In the case of personal vehicles a faster growth rate has been recorded over the previous year. The percentage of category wise motor vehicles registered during 2012-13 is shown in Fig 5.3.

Fig 5.3

Category wise Motor Wehicles Registered during 2012-13



5.28 The district wise details of vehicles newly registered, vehicles with valid registration and growth of vehicles in Kerala are given in Appendix 5.7 and 5.8 respectively. An analysis of growth of Motor vehicles and its impact on local development in the State during the last eight years reveals that vehicle population has increased from 31,22,082 lakh in 2005 to 80,48,673 lakh in 2013, (157.8%) while only marginal increase has been achieved in the augmentation of road length.


5.29 About 3171 vehicles are newly added to vehicle population every day. Of this 1794 are two wheelers. The details of category wise growth of motor vehicles in Kerala since 2008 are given in Appendix 5.9. The highest vehicle population was recorded in the Ernakulam district with 12,38,040 vehicles (15.4 %) followed by Thiruvananthapuram with 9,71,104 (12%). Idukki district has the lowest number of 1,41,497 (1.75 %) vehicles. The tremendous increase in the volume of road traffic in recent years has caused increase of total accidents. More deatails are available in the Appendix 5.10.


Road Accidents


5.30 Even though several initiatives have been taken by the police to enforce road discipline and enforcement of rules by Motor Vehicles Department, road accidents are increasing. The increasing trend of traffic accidents is a matter of great concern. The accident rate of Kerala is increasing with 15 accidents per 1000 vehicles during 2012-13. Even bigger states like Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan reports far less number of accidents compared to Kerala.


5.31 During 2012-13, Kerala registered 37204 accidents (102 per day). Accidents due to KSRTC buses were 1282 ( 3 per day) and private buses were 3751 (10 per day) . The number of two wheelers has increased from 41.27 lakh in 2012 to 50.41 lakh in 2013, recording average annual growth rate of 22 percent. Similarly the number of traffic crashes involving two wheelers have grown to 17870 (49 per day) in 2013. Bike accidents account for nearly 40.05 percent of the total accidents reported in the State. Trend of Motor Vehicle Accidents in Kerala is in the Fig 5.4


Fig 5.4

Trend of Motor Vehicle Accidents in Kerala





5.32 According to records, almost 95% of accidents occurred due to the fault of drivers of the motor vehicles. The rest of the accidents are caused due to various other reasons like traffic, bad weather, poor road condition, fault of pedestrians etc. Road accidents are caused due to one or more of the following reasons.

• Rash driving and unhealthy completion of vehicles

• Defective eye sight of drivers

• Poor surface condition and badly maintained side shoulders of roads

• Uncontrolled access streets and unmanned junctions

• Least care regard to traffic rule

• Haphazard parking on road side

• Location of bus stops close to junctions

• Lack of pedestrian crossing, walkway facilities etc

• Encroachment/dumping of materials on the road

The percentage of category wise and vehicle wise accidents in Kerala during 2012-13 is shown in the Fig 5.5. More details are available in the Appendices 5.11 and 5.12.


Fig 5.5

Category wise and Vehicle wise Accidents in Kerala during 2012-13




5.33 The Indian Railway system is the second largest network in the World under a single management. It provides one of the cheapest means of transport in India. The State total railway route has a length of 1257 km and covers 13 railway routes. The Railway Divisions at Thiruvananthapuram, Palakkad and Maduari jointly carry out Railway operations in Kerala. Total route Km of 623.76 Km of Thiruvananthapuram division comprises of 494.76 Km in Kerala State and 129 Km in Tamil Nadu State. Thiruvananthapuram Division is the largest coaching division of Southern Railway with coach holding of 1572 (bars) coaches. The Division maintains 40 Express trains and 53 passenger trains.


Kochi Metro


5.34 Kochi Metro Rail Project (KMRP) is the flagship project of the Government of Kerala designed to cure the transportation woes of Kochi City. The Project is implemented through the Kochi Metro Rail Ltd (KMRL) which is a Special Purpose Vehicle having joint ownership of Government of Kerala and Government of India with equity participation. The Union Government gave sanction for the project in July 2012 at a total cost of ` 5181.79 Crore. The Kochi metro connecting Aluva-Pettah will be completed in three stages, and each stage will be approximately 8 Kms and the stations proposed are 22 numbers.


5.35 The first phase of the Metro Rail Project is 25.612 Kms from Aluva to Petta. An agreement was signed between KMRL and DMRC on 23rd May 2013 delineating the roles, responsibilities and obligations of KMRL and DMRC in the implementation of the project. A tripartite agreement has also been linked by Government of Kerala, Government of India and Kochi Metro Rail Ltd. DMRC is entrusted with the implementation of this project. The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Kerala, inaugurated the civil works of the Metro Rail project on 7th June 2013. The civil work of the Project has been started and expected to be completed within 3-4 years.


Thiruvananthapuram and Calicut Monorail Corporation


5.36 Thiruvananthapuram and Calicut Monorail Corporation intended to set up a Mass Rapid Transit System in both the cities and M/s Wilbur Smith Associates and M/s NATPAC have been engaged for conducting the feasibility study of the project. M/s Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) has prepared the detailed project reports for Kozhikode Monorail Project from Medical College Junction to Meenchantha touching Kozhikode Railway Station and the proposed length extends to 14.2 Kms with 15 stations. The Government has accorded Administrative Sanction for an amount of 
` 1991 Crore for the phase I of Kozhikode Monorail and incorporating a special purpose vehicle viz, Kerala Monorail Corporation Limited and M/s DMRC as the General consultant for Kozhikode and Thiruvananthapuram Monorail Projects. 


5.37 The alignment of the monorail will be along the middle of the PWD road and will be fully elevated and the Stations and Platforms will be above the road. All Sations will have elevated and stations at Medical College, Mananchira and Railway Station will have escalators. The trains will consist of 3 cars with the carrying capacity of 525 passengers. The trains will be driverless but may also be operated with drivers. The phase I of Thiruvananthapuram Monorail Project covering a distance of 22.537 Kms with 19 stations from Technocity to Karamana at an estimated cost of ` 3178 crore including taxes and duties based on April 2012 price level.


Air Transport


5.38 Kerala has three airports at Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode and Kochi. Kannur International Airport (KIAL) is set up Government of Kerala to build and operate Kannur International airport. The Ministry of Environment & Forest has granted necessary environmental clearance for the project. The Board of Directors has approved RFQ for EPC – 1 covering entire Airfields works like runway, taxiway, apron, ancillary buildings required for housing CNS facilities, substations, CCR building, fire station, operational and other boundary wall, drain, retaining structure, main approach road to airport from existing state road, car park etc.


5.39 Air Transport plays a major role in the development of tourism both domestic and international. During 2012-13, 66122 flights ( 26524 domestic and 39598 international) were operated from all the three airports together. From the three airports, a total number of 83,74,104 passengers ( 24,64,712 domestic and 59,09,392 international ) were carried during 2012-13. Details of flights operated during 2012-13 by three Airports are shown in Appendix 5. 19 (A), (B) and (C) .



Water Transport Sector


Port Sector

5.40 The Kerala state lies in the south west corner of the Indian peninsula. It has a coastal length of 585 km and the state has an average width of about 60 km with one major port at Cochin and 17 non major ports. Government of Kerala intends to provide a boost to coastal shipping with the development of ports. The forest area in the east and coastal area in the west are environmentally very sensitive areas. The geographical location of Kerala is very close to international shipping route. Out of seventeen minor ports in Kerala three are considered as intermediate ports based on berthing, cargo handling and storage facilities available in them. These have contributed much to the development of industry, trade, commerce and agriculture in the country.


5.41 The Government of Kerala has already decided to develop five non major ports through PPP mode. These Ports are Azheekal, Beypore, Ponnani, Alappuzha and Kollam . Apart from this a major port , Vizhinjam Deepwater International Container Transshipment Terminal is coming up. An amount of Rs. 23081 lakh , Rs. 27759 lakh, Rs.7869 lakh are earmarked for this sector during 2011-12 and 2012-13 ,2013-14 respectively.


Non Major Ports


5.42 The Government agencies involved in the development of ports in the State are Port Department, Harbour Engineering Department, and Hydrographic Survey Wing.


Port Department


5.43 The Minor and Intermediate Ports are under the Administration of Government of Kerala. The Ports are administered directly by the Director of Ports who is headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram. There are three regional officers at Neendakara, Alappuzha and Kozhikkode. Besides the Port of Kochi (a Major Port governed by Major Port Trusts Act, 1963), there are 3 Intermediate and 14 Minor Ports in Kerala. They are Neendakara, Alappuzha,Vizhinjam,Valiyathura,Thankasserry,Kayamkulam,Manakkodam, Munambam, Ponnani, Beypore, Vadakara, Thalasserry, Manjeswaram, Neeleswaram, Kannur, Azhikkal and Kasaragode (Minor Ports). Most of the minor and intermediate ports in the State are seasonal in nature with insufficient infrastructure to handle even medium and small sized vessels throughout the year .Government of Kerala allowed private investment in Intermediate and Minor Ports from 1994.


5.44 Commodity – wise cargo handled in the non – major ports during the year 2012-13 are shown in Appendix 5.20. Cargo handling during 2012-13 was confined mainly to Kozhikode, Kollam, Vizhinjam and Azhikkal ports. During 2012-13, 512 steamers and sailing vessels with registered tonnage of 308438 are called at non- major ports against 583 steamers and sailing vessels with 332459 tonnages in the previous year. This shows decrease in number of steamers and tonnages . The details are shown in Appendix 5.21. Statement showing the revenue collection at the non-major ports during 2012-13 is shown in Appendix 5.22.


Box. 5.5

Major Achievements of the Port Department during 2012-13

1. A systematic process of developing the master plans of 10 non-major ports has been initiated, five for cargo shipping and five for passenger shipping.

2. Establishing the Kerala Maritime Board as the implementation agency for coastal shipping is in the process

3. For the promotion of coastal shipping, an incentive of Rs.1/- per Ton per Km and Rs.1/- per passenger Km has been announced , which is the first in India.

4. Coastal Shipping Project was flagged off at Kollam Port on 9th November 2013. Vessel of M/s Transworld group MV OEL victory with stuffed containers ( Tiles arrived and unloaded at Kollam Port on that day ).The cargo assured by the KSMDCL from Mundra port , Gujarat and the chartered vessel M V Suryamukhi has moved to Mudra Port to load container .

5. The construction work of the Maritime Institute at Neendakara and Kodungallur is in progress under the financial assistance of NABARD .

6. A safe boat list of 350 houseboats and other vessels was published in the official website of Port Department and Tourism Department so as to enable tourists to select a right boat for their pleasure journey in the lakes and reservoirs of Kerala.

7. A cutter suction dredger was ordered to deepen selected ports to 10 M draft, channel marking buoys were installed at Azheekal, Beypore, Kollam ports and the Vembanad lake, four new container wharfs are under design and container crane purchase has been initiated as part of infrastructure development.

8. Most of the services in the Port Department have been brought under E-Governance mode such as Certificate of Competency under Kerala Inland Vessel Rules, Shipping and landing services in the ports, issue of vehicle pass for the removal of the dredged materials.

9. The establishment two maritime museums at Thalassery and Valiyathura are under process.

10. A comprehensive maritime policy for the State is drafted and is under consideration of Government.


Harbour Engineering Department


5.45 Harbour Engineering Department was formed in 1982 as a separate specialized department as a service department for Fisheries and Ports. Government of India has empanelled Harbour Engineering Department of Kerala as a consultant in the Coastal Engineering field for the nation as a whole. This department is the only such State Department in India. The major functions of the department are investigation, planning, design, evaluation, execution, operation, maintenance, and management and related maritime engineering and technical works for the development schemes of the Fisheries and Port department.


Hydrographic Survey Wing


5.46 The Hydrographic Survey Wing was constituted in 1968 as a component of the Kerala State Port Department with a view to cater to the requirements of Hydrographic Investigation for the development of the non major ports of Maritime State of Kerala. This wing has been conducting pre-dredging and post-dredging, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon surveys to ascertain various aspects such as requirement of dredging, data required for the construction of Fishing Harbours, Fish Landing Centers, Small ports etc. In addition to the routine pre-monsoon and post-monsoon survey at 16 non-major ports they also undertakes survey work for other departments like Irrigation, Inland Navigation, Fisheries, Tourism, PWD and Research Institutions like Kerala Engineering Research Institute etc.


Achievements for 2012-13


5.47 Digitization survey in Alappuzha, Ernakulam and Malappuram has been completed. Established Hydrographic Survey Institute in Kochi and Hydrographic Survey course has been started. Established one Hydrographic Data Centre at Vizhinjam. Survey work from Thottappally to Aranmula has been completed. Purchased one echo sounder, One Differential Global Positioning System, Side Scan Sonar, Sub-bottom Profiler and two vehicles for Hydrographic Survey Wing during the financial year. Construction of survey vessel MV Nirdeshak has been completed. Work order issued for construction of new Survey Launch, renovation of MV Surveyor, ML Hydrographer and purchase of FRP Survey boat. Construction of new office building at Beypore has been completed.


Vizhinjam Deep Water International Container Transshipment Terminal


5.48 Vizhinjam International Deep Water multipurpose Seaport is a flagship project of Government of Kerala being developed on a landlord port model. Vizhinjam International Deep Water Multipurpose Seaport limited (VISL) is a special purpose government company (fully owned by government of Kerala) that would act as a implementing agency for the development of a Greenfield port.


5.49. Vizhinjam is a natural port, which is located close to the international ship route. So it is expected that at least 50% of the (nearly 20,000) ships that pass through the Suez Canal (per annum) will anchor at Vizhinjam Port. It is expected that with the functioning of Vizhinjam port in its full swing, the ports of Colombo, Singapore and Dubai might face serious competition from India. This will boost the trade and commercial activities not only in Kerala but also to entire India. It is estimated that India could save more than a 100 million U.S. dollars per year in terms of foreign exchange.


5.50 Vizhinjam Deep Water International Container Transshipment Terminal is located on Southern tip of Indian Peninsula .Only 10 nautical miles from the major international sea route and East-West shipping axis. This port has natural water depth of more than 20 m within a nautical mile from coast and negligible maintenance dredging . Also this port has Proximity to rail (10 Km), road (3Km) network & airport and no acquisition of land needed for the Port itself.


5.51 The port terminal will be developed under Public Private Partnership (PPP) model wherein the construction and operation of the port terminal would be on Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis. The port development along with the external infrastructure work is envisaged to be carried out in phases with the cumulative cost estimated to be around Rs. 6595 crore. The port is envisaged to provide in total 2000m of quay length in three phases and is designed to cater primarily for containers transshipment, besides providing for other type of cargo such as Multi-Purpose, Break Bulk.


Box 5.6

Latest Status of Vizhinjam Deep Water International Container Transshipment Terminal

• The project got environmental clearance with 17 conditions.

• Tenders floated

• The first stage of the Vizhinjam International Seaport will have berthing facilities not only for big container ships, but for the Indian Navy and the Coastguard, besides a cruise terminal.


 Cochin Port


5.52 Cochin Port is the only major port in Kerala. It is spread over 827 hectares. It has a water frontage of 7.5 Km. The port has connectivity to hinterland through NH 47, NH 17 and NH 49. Rail links to the Konkan and Southern Railway also give key rail access to its hinterland. An Inland Waterway connecting Kollam and Kottappuram on either side is being developed by the Inland Waterways Authority of India. During 2012-13, foreign cargo traffic decreased by 1.51% to 132.28 lakh tonnes from 134.31 lakh tonnes in the preceding year. During the year 2012-13, 1368 vessels called at the Port as against 1386 vessels in the preceding year registering a decrease of 1.30% in the shipping activity. The total traffic handled by the Port during the year recorded a decrease of 1.22% to 198.45 lakh tonnes as against 200.91 lakh tonnes handled in the preceding year. Total number of passengers arrived at and sailed from Cochin Port during the year was 128775 and 121274 respectively as against 145892 and 117705 in the preceding year.


5.53 Coastal cargo traffic have also decreased by 0.65% to 66.17 lakh tonnes from 66.60 lakh tonnes. Total import traffic handled during the year recorded an increase by 1.46% to 160.11 lakh tonnes from 157.80 lakh tonnes in the preceding year. The details are shown in Appendix 5.23


5.54 Total export traffic handled during the year showed a decrease of 11% to 38.34 lakh tonnes from 43.11 lakh tonnes in the preceding year. The details are shown in Appendix 5.24. During the year the tonnage of container cargo (excluding tare weight of containers) handled increased by 3.9% to 38.79 lakh tonnes from 37.33 lakh tonnes in the preceding year.Total number of containers handled showed a decrease to 334925 TEUs during the year from 337053 TEUs handled in the preceding year indicating a decrease by 0.63%


Vallarpadam International Container Transshipment Terminal  


5.55 The Prime Minister of India laid the foundation stone for Vallarpadam International Container Transshipment Terminal in1995. Completion of this prestigious project would make the Cochin port a major hub port in the Indian Ocean region.


5.56 Regarding the construction of ICTT at Vallarpadam, Soil stabilization work with stone columns and band drains commenced and is in progress. Supporting infrastructure project namely stage-II capital dredging for providing 14.5 m draft at ICTT, National High Way connectivity at a route length of 17.2 kms and Rail connectivity with route length of 8.86 Km are at various stages of execution. Capital dredging was completed on 1st November 2012 and clearing the area is in progress. The progress achieved upto 31/03/2013 with respect to four lane connectivity is 84%. National Highways Authority of India is expected to complete the work by May 2014.


Inland Water Transport


5.57 Inland Water Transport is a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transportation. India is richly endowed with navigable waterways, comprising rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc. The Inland Waterways Authority of India has been established for the development and regulation of Inland waterways for shipping and navigation and for related matter. The Inland Waterways Authority of India Act, 1985, empowers the Government to declare waterways with potential for development of shipping and navigation as National Waterways. Currently, three waterways have been declared as National Waterways of which National Waterway 3( Kollam – Kottapuram stretch of West Coast Canal along with Champakara and Udyogmandal Canals (205 km))is in Kerala.


5.58 Also, in order to provide an impetus to the development of Inland water transport modes, an Inland Water Transport Policy has been announced. It includes several fiscal concessions and guidelines for encouraging private sector participation in development of infrastructure and ownership and operation of Inland vessels. IWAI is also authorized for joint ventures and equity participation in BOT projects.


5.59 State of Kerala is endowed with numerous backwaters and it is one of the State in India, where waterways are successfully used for commercial Inland Water Transport. The transportation is mainly done with country craft and passenger vessels. There are 41 navigable rivers in Kerala. The total length of the Inland Waterways in the State is 1687 Kms. The main arterial waterway in the state is West Coast Canal. The West Coast Canal connects the Hosdurg in the north to Thiruvananthapuram – Poovar in the South and is about 590 Km including 47 Km. uncut portion from Badakara to Azheekal.


5.60 The Inland Canals play an important role in the economy of the state as they interconnect the rivers, on the banks on which are situated places of commercial and industrial importance and also give a connection from interior places to the West Coast Canal System which can be broadly divided in to three sections as below,

1. Neeleswaram to Kottappuram 348 Km

2. Kottappuram to Kollam (NW III) 168 Km

3. Kollam to Kovalam 74 Km


5.61 The canal portion from Thiruvananthapuram to Ponnani and then along Bharathappuzha River upto Shornur is known as Thiruvananthapuram – Shornur Canal (TS Canal). As part of a programme for developming Waterways by the central Government, length of 168 Km of Waterway from Kollam to Kottappuram of West Coast Canal including Udyogamandal and Champakara Canals were declared as National Waterway No. III.


5.62 Inland Waterways Authority of India is carrying out various developmental works works viz. Capital dredging for providing 2 m Least Available Depth ( LAD ) , width of 38/32m , 24 hours navigational facilities and terminals equipped with mechanical cargo handling equipment .


5.63 Capital dredging work of Udyogamandal canal has been completed and the stretch is fully navigable and in Champakara canal, the work of dredging has been completed and the stretch is fully navigable except a small shoal at Thevara which could not be completed due to local issues .


5.64 Government agencies engaged in the development of Inland Water Transport in the State are Coastal Shipping and Inland Navigation Department (CSIND), State Water Transport Department (SWTD) and Kerala Shipping and Inland Navigation Corporation Ltd. (KSINC).


State Water Transport Department


5.65 During 2012-13 Kerala State Water Transport department took stringent action for Procuring ALM 400 marine engines and Hydraulic gear box and purchased Chemical/ Bio Toilet ,purchase timber from the Forest department, erection of Dry Dock System at Alappuzha and slipway at Ayitti Payyannr region ,complete slipway at Alappuzha, erection of Station Office building at Muhamma and erection of Office –cum-Workshop building at Alappuzha. As compared to the previous year the number of passengers increased accordingly number of trips also increased and total revenue receipts increased, 95 boats were operated with 740 trips during 2012-13. Details of operational statistics of this department are shown in Appendix 5.25.


Kerala Shipping and Inland Navigation Corporation Ltd.


5.66 The Corporation was formed in 1989 by the statutory amalgamation of Kerala Inland Navigation Corporation Ltd. (KINCO) and Kerala Shipping Corporation Limited (KSC) both Government of Kerala Companies. The main objective of the company is to develop passenger and cargo transportation through Inland Waterways of Kerala, docking and repair of marine vessels, construction of boats, conducting navigation training programmes, conducting tourist cruises, providing navigational aids and maintenance in National Waterway-III. The Corporation at present has 8 barges 4 tourist boats and 2 Jhankars. The operational statistics of KSINC are shown in Appendix 5.25.


Coastal Shipping and Inland Navigation Department


5.67 The main State Inland Canal schemes in the State are implemented through this department. The programmes implemented through this department during 2012-13 are:-

• Improvements and Modernization of Inland Water ways and Canals

• XIII Finance Commission has earmarked Rs.200 Crores for the development of the Inland Water ways and Coastal Zone management including construction of new sea walls and reformation of existing sea walls for 2010-2015 . An amount of Rs.50 crores each is provided for 2012-13 &2013-14 .This scheme includes improvement of Existing Main Canals and Feeder Canals for Inland Water Transport

• Development of Feeder Canals Connecting the National Water ways III(RIDF)


Box. 5.7

Problems and issues existing in the Coastal Shipping/ Inland Navigation sector


 • Delay in demarcation of canal land due to various factors

• Severe obstruction from public on boundary disputes and other local issues.

• Delay in eviction of encroachment and failure of evolving a proper rehabilitation plan for dwellers and affected people near the canal boundary

• Lack of depth in the waterway caused by silting

• Lack of maintenance of navigation system and bank protection.

• Accelerated growth of the water hyacinth.

• Lack of modern inland craft terminals and cargo handling system.

• Lack of end user incentivisation.





5.68 Energy plays a vital role in the socio-economic development and human welfare of a State. Apart from its contribution to economic development, it contributes significantly to revenue generation, employment and enhances the quality of life. Per-capita power consumption is considered as an indicator for measuring the standard of living of the society. Making available the required quantity of power at affordable price is the responsibility of the state. The possibility of tapping non-conventional sources of energy and private participation in energy development, conserving depleting reserves and controlling rising prices are thrust areas. Development of the power sector is the key to the economic development.


Power Sector in Kerala


5.69 In Kerala, shortage of power is the prime obstacle in starting new initiatives in the industrial field. The need for power is increasing and the production of power should also be increased accordingly. Monsoon is essential to sustain the hydropower base in the state and the shortage in rainfall usually creates power crisis. Hydel energy is the most reliable and dependable source in Kerala. Of the total installed capacity of 2881 MW during 2012-13, hydel contributed the major share of 2053 MW (71%); while 793MW was contributed by thermal projects including NTPC at Kayamkulam (Kerala’s dedicated thermal station) and Kanjikode wind farm, Palakkad has contributed 2MW. Wind Energy from IPP is 33 MW. Additional capacity generated during 2012-13 was only 8 MW (0.28%) that is 2881 MW in 2012-13 against 2873 MW in 2011-12. Appendix 5.26shows details of energy source and its installed capacity during the last five years.


5.70 Fig 5.6 highlights total installed capacity in Kerala from hydel, thermal and wind sources.


Fig 5.6

Total Installed Capacity


 Performance of Power Sector Agencies


5.71 Power development activities in the state are carried out mainly through four agencies viz, Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB), Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT), Electrical Inspectorate and Energy Management Centre (EMC). The Outlay and Expenditure of these departments for the last three years are shown in Table 5.3.


Table 5.3

Outlay and Expenditure




Annual Plan


% of Expt.

Annual Plan


% of Expt.

Annual Plan


Outlay Expt.   Outlay Expt.   Outlay Expt. as on 30.11.2013
1 KSEB 103600 105677.00 102








5950 2000.00 33.6






3 MTSL 130








4 EMC 2620 1600.00 61






  Total 104700 109407.00 104.5







5.72 The outlay earmarked for power sector during the Annual plan 2013-14 was `122270 lakh. The expenditure as on 30.11.2013 is ` 70296.89 lakh (57.49%).


Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) Limited


5.73 KSEB is the driving force behind development of the state of Kerala. KSEB has been responsible for the generation, transmission and supply of electricity in the state, with particular mandate to provide electricity at affordable cost to the domestic as well as for agricultural purposes.


Corporatisation of KSEB


5.74 In order to comply with the provisions of Electricity Act 2003 and the Government of India directives, the Kerala Government notified a transfer scheme vide GO (M.S) No.37/2008/PD dated, 25.9.2008 through which all assets and liabilities of KSEB are vested with the State Government. These Assets and Liabilities now vested with the Government are to be re-vested in a fully owned government company incorporated under the Indian Companies Act, 1956.


5.75 Based on the above Govt order, a new company named Kerala State Electricity Board Limited has been incorporated on 14th January 2011 for the re-vesting of assets and liabilities of KSEB now vested with the Govt. Government holds the entire shares of the Company and the members of the Board are appointed as Directors of the Company. On 31.10.2013, the Govt. has notified the second transfer scheme for revesting the functions, assets and liabilities of the KSEB to the new company.





5.76 Kerala generates power from four sources - hydro power, thermal power, wind power and solar power. Of these, hydel and thermal power generations account for the considerable majority whereas wind and solar power generations make only marginal additions. Growth of power system in Kerala during the last five years is shown in Table 5.4.


Table 5.4

Growth of Kerala Power System at a Glance - 2008-2013




Position as on 11/2013







Installed Capacity -MW 2694.75 2746.19 2857.59 2872.79



Maximum Demand(System)-MW 2765 2998 3119 3348



Generation Per Annum-(KSEB Own)-MU 6494.50 7240.38 7412.59 8350.74



Import Per Annum- MU 9628.98 10199.96 10512.29 11270.71



Export Per Annum-MU 463.33 53.9 130.24 201.1



Energy Sales within state Per Annum-MU 12414.32 13971.09 14547.9 15980.53



Percentage of energy losses to energy available for sales 20.45 19.41 17.99 17.45



Per Capita Consumption - kWh 490.00 474 519 567



220 kV Lines - CT Kms 2683.00 2701





110 kV Lines - CT Kms 3921.00 3970 4004 4005



66 kV Lines - CT Kms

2387.00 2387 2387 2387



33 kV Lines - CT Kms 1148.00 1348 1421 1497



11 kV Lines - CT Kms

41791.11 45541 49232 51392



LT Lines - CT Kms 252458.00 260670 266856 270718



Step Up Transformer capacity -MVA 2561.00 2564 2684 2689



No of EHT Substations


400 kV 2 * 2* 2* 2*



220 kV 15.00 17 17 18



110 kV 116.00 123 128 131



66 kV 85.00 82 80 80



33 kV 87.00 106 113 120



Step down transformer capacity - MVA 13519.70 15827.9 16222.1 16556.3



Distribution Transformers


Numbers 46955.00 52724 58427 62726



Capacity -MVA 5937.00 6708 7320 7674



No of villages electrified 1384.00 1384 1467 1467



No of consumers (Lakhs) 93.63 97.43 101.28 104.57637



Connected Load-MW 15267.44 15866.55 16681.3 17518.42



No of Street Lights 1086688.00 1148220 1196503 1218610



No of irrigation pumps 431745.00 437878 446460 455078



Total revenue Per Annum (`Lakhs) 609899.00 641138 641138 797804.89



Revenue from Sale of Power Per Annum(`Lakhs) 509749.00 495060 495060 581781.92


*Pallipuram 400 kv Substation owned by PGCIL

Source: KSEB


5.77 The history of Hydro Power development in Kerala begins with the commissioning of Pallivasal Hydro Electric Project in 1940. Next few decades reflected the progressive developments of various hydroelectric schemes implemented in the state. Sabarigiri in 1966 and Idukki in 1976 are milestones of power development in Kerala. The achievement in generation sector is not up to the level expected.


5.78 Total installed capacity of power in the state as on March 2013 is 2881 MW, of which the contribution of state sector is 2246.68 MW (78%), central sector 359.58 MW (12%) and private sector 274.78 MW (10%). Sector wise total Installed Capacity generated in Kerala during the Eleventh Plan is shown in Appendix 5.27


Hydel Generation


5.79 During the year 2012-13 the peak demand reached 3268 MW and there was huge gap in the availability against requirement. This was on account of various factors like the reduction in inflow due to poor monsoon, high cost of naphtha and Low Sulphur High Stock (LSHS), reduction in availability of Central Generating Stations (CGS) etc. The maximum demand increased from 2765 MW during 2008-09 to 3268 MW (18% increase) during 2012-13.


5.80 Under the purview of KSEB, 13 hydel projects are in the pipeline. The details of the project can be seen in Appendix 5.28


Negative Surplus Power during 2012-13


5.81 With the hike in the consumption of energy, the State’s power quota from the central pool has enhanced from 1267 MW to 1292.06 MW as on March 2013. The poor yield from hydel reservoirs, high cost for thermal power and increased demand for power created a situation of Negative Surplus Power during 2012-13. The negative situation occurred mainly due to the drastic reduction in hydel generation. At the same time the total requirement increased to 19879.7 MU in 2012-13 from 18946.29 MU (4.92% growth) in the previous year against the power availability of 16197.69 MU resulted a negative surplus of 3682 MU. The details of power availability during the last five years are shown in Appendix 5.29.


Pattern of Power Consumption


5.82 The domestic category consumers showed a growth rate of more than 3% from 8324961 in 2011-12 to 8573938 in 2012-13. Percapita consumption shows an increase of more than 4.94% i.e. 595 kWh in 2012-13 against 567 kWh in 2011-12. Growth of other agricultural pumping, Licensees (Bulk supply) also increased substantially over the year. During 2012-13, 16838.2 MU of energy amounting to ` 744697 lakhs was sold showing an increase of 656.57MU as compared to the previous years (16181.6 MU amounting to ` 581782 lakhs). The details of the pattern of power consumption and revenue collected during 2012-13 can be seen in Appendix 5.30


5.83 As per the 18th power survey, it is estimated that the annual consumption and maximum demand will be 26584 MU and 4669 MW respectively by the end of 12th plan period (2017).


Electrical Energy Consumption


5.84 In Kerala, electrical energy consumption has increased to 16838.24 MU in 2012-13 from 15980.53 MU during 2011-12. The percentage of consumption increased to 5.36 %. Electrical Energy consumption in Kerala during 2008-09 to 2012-13 is depicted in Fig.5.7


Fig 5.7

Electrical Energy Consumption in Kerala




Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)


 5.85 KSEB has entered into a PPA with various Central Generating Stations of NTPC, NLC, NPCIL etc. envisaged for Southern Region. In addition to this, power is being purchased from Rajiv Gandhi Combined Cycle Power Plant of NTPC at Kayamkulam, BSES Kerala Power Ltd, Kochi and Kasaragod Power Corporation Ltd., Mylatti. As a measure to encourage non-conventional sources of energy, KSEB has executed PPAs for purchase of power from Wind Energy Projects, Agali (13.8 MW) & Ramakkalmedu (14.25MW) and from a small Hydro Projects Iruttukkanam (4.5 MW). Power is also being purchased from Ullunkal Small Hydro Projects (7MW) and a co-generation plant of MPS steel, Kanjikode (8MW) and Philips Carbon Black Ltd., Kochi (10MW). The capacity allocated from various stations for which the PPAs have been executed is given in the Appendix 5.31


5.86 Kerala is planning capacity addition through hydel and non-conventional sources during the 12th plan. Allocation of 232MW power from the projects viz. Neyveli Lignite Corporation Expansion (70MW), Simhadri Thermal Power Station (unit II-40.45 MW), Vallur (49MW) and Tutucorin (72.5 MW) are expected. Further KSEB has requested share of power from Kayamkulam Expansion (500MW).


5.87 KSEB had shown interest in sharing a total of 1200 MW power from the proposed Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPP) such as Tadri (400 MW) in Karnataka, Akalthara (200MW) in Chattisgarh, Krishnapatnam (400MW) in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa (200MW). But only a tentative allocation of 200 MW power from proposed Tadri, Karnataka has been obtained by Kerala. Kerala has received allocation from Ministry of Power for 300 MW from Cheyyur UMPP in Tamilnadu, 190MW from Orissa UMPP and 75 MW from APUMPP.


5.88 Board is exploring the feasibility of setting up a 1000 MW gas based power plant at Brahmapuram using the gas from Petronet LNG/GAIL gas pipeline projects. There is also a proposal for expanding the capacity of NTPC Kayamkulam Plant by 1050MW using the gas from Petronet/ GAIL. Petronet LNG limited is also considering setting up a 1200 MW gas based power plant adjacent to their LNG terminal.


5.89 PGCIL is entrusted with the work of construction of Thirunelveli-Madakkathara 400 KV line for evacuation of power from Koodamkulam nuclear power plant. The work in Edamon- Kochi sector of this line is held up due to public protest.




5.90 Transmission of Electricity means a bulk transfer of power over a long distance at high voltage, generally of 132 KV and above. A good transmission system is necessary to the effective distribution and to bring power from outside the state. The transmission network was scaled up by adding 401Circuit kms of Extra High Tension (EHT) lines from 2007 to 2013 and 90 substations were commissioned (including upgradation) during the period. During the year 2013-14, commissioning of 26 substations and construction of 314.6 KM of Transmission lines has been targeted. In the Transmission sector, many planned works could not be taken up due to land acquisition and right of way related issues. Kerala’s Transmission system consisting of substations and its connected lines are given in Appendix 5.32 and 5.33.


5.91 The performance of the construction of substation with various capacities has not achieved the desired target. Out of the target of 5 numbers of 110 KV substations, only 1 substation is completed and in the case of 33 KV substations, 8 substations are completed against the target of 9 numbers. In the case of 220KV and 66 KV substations, nothing has been achieved.


Renovation, Modernisation and Uprating (RMU) of old Generating Stations


5.92 As part of increasing the generation capacity of existing stations, several measures are being taken. The renovation, modernization and up rating of Sabarigiri Power Station has been completed. The rectification work of Unit #4 of Sabarigiri Power Station is in progress. The system installed capacity increased by commissioning of Neriamangalam Extension Scheme, Kuttiyadi Tail Race Scheme, Kuttiyadi additional extension scheme, Poozhithodu SHP, Ranni-perinad SHP, Peechi SHP and renovation of 5 units of Sabarigiri HEP.


Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT & C) losses


5.93 During 2012-13 AT&C loss has come down to 15.30% from 15.65% in 2011-12. KSEB made significant achievements in the field of reducing AT&C loss. From 2003-04 onwards AT&C loss was considerably reduced by way of faulty meter replacement, intensification of theft detection, installation of new substations and lines, up gradation and modernization of sub transmission and distribution network through APDRP scheme. The impact of AT & C loss reduction during the last five years is shown in Appendix 5.34. The decreasing trend of AT & C loss during the last 5 years can be seen in Fig.5.8.


Fig 5.8

Aggregate Technical and Commercial Losses






5.94 In the distribution segment, 53193 Circuit Kms of 11 KV lines, 274230 Kms of LT lines, 65686 nos. of distribution transformers and 1279379 street lights are existing as on 30th Sept 2013. Service connections aggregating to 10963365 were effected during the years 2008-2013. During the financial year 2013-14, 190186 service connections were given up (against the target of 458130), 486.518kms of 11 kV line (against the target of 3430kms), 927 nos. of transformers (against the target of 4400 nos.) and 1415.5 kms of LT line (against the target of 6900 kms) were commissioned (up to 30.09.2013). The target and achievement of the distribution infrastructure during 2012-13 is given in Appendix 5.35.


5.95 To improve customer satisfaction, model section concept was introduced and rolled out all over the state. SMS based complaint registration system (SMS CRS) introduced for speedy rectification of consumer complaints. A parallel run of ORUMA Net to provide anywhere payment for LT consumers started at 78 electrical sections in Kerala. E-payment facility for HT/EHT consumers is implemented. E-payment facility for LT consumers has been implemented since 23.04.2013.


5.96 Accounting Software SARAS implemented in all ARU’s. Software for supply Chain Management implemented in all distribution offices. Software for Provident fund and Payroll implementation completed in all ARU’s. Introduced Performance awards for employees in various fields for employee motivation.


5.97 Voltage & frequency of the power system was well within the specified limits. The availability of EHT & HT feeders was above 99% all over the state. T&D loss was reduced from 21.46 % to 15.30 % during the period from 2007 to 2013.


5.98 KSEB has given great attention to strengthen the distribution backbone by introducing new ventures of Restructured- Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (R- APDRP) and Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuthikaran Yojana (RGGVY). The power consumption comes to all time high. As on 2012-13, total number of consumers has increased to 108.07 lakhs against 104.58 lakhs during 2011-12.


Demand Side Management activities


5.99 As part of Demand Side Management activities, an Energy Audit Cell has been formed during the year 2007 with an objective of conducting Energy Audit and for taking steps as per provisions of the Energy conservation Act 2001. As part of this, workshops have been conducted in the thermal and hydro stations for formulating the action plan for energy audits and for promoting energy conservation activities. Also the CFL-CDM Scheme Bachat Lamp Yojana (BLY) implemented in the entire State. A tentative peak load reduction of 120 MW is estimated as a result of implementation of the scheme. Sub division level DSM Cells were formed for conducting awareness programme on energy conservation for major energy consumers, resident associations and students to restrict energy consumption during peak hours. Programme on energy conservation implemented through schools, named “Nalekkithiri Oorjam’’ is jointly organized by KSEB, Energy Management Centre (EMC) and Education Department.


5.100 Anti Power Theft Squad (APTS) was active during the last 5 years. The details of amount realized by means of APTS inspections were detailed in Table 5.5


Table 5.5

Anti Power Theft Squad (APTS) Inspection







No of inspections






Amount Assessed in `Crore






Amount realized in `Crore






Source: KSEB

5.101 The APTS wing conducted 12450 inspections till 31.10.2013 during the year 2013-14, and out of the assessed amount of ` 22.75 crore, ` 9.32 crore were realized.


Innovation Fund-State Supported Scheme Started on 2013-14


5.102 Aiming research activities into viable solutions for energy shortage in the state, Innovation fund has been provided to set up Energy Innovation Zone. The work include connected roof top solar panels, solar PV plants of medium and large capacity, floating solar plants in the water bodies like reservoirs, power generation from solid waste treatment plants, Solar Powered Inverters etc.




5.103 The overall average realization rate from tariff has been decreased to 329 paise per unit in 2012-13 as against the 347 paise per unit in 2011-12. The details can be seen in Appendix 5.36 and 5.37. Tariffs are regulated by Electricity Regulatory Commission.


Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme (R-APDRP)


5.104 The focus of the Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme (R-APDRP) is on actual demonstrable performance in terms of reduction in aggregate technical and commercial (AT&C) losses. Projects under the scheme are taken up in two parts in urban areas and cities with population of more than 30,000. Part A of the scheme includes projects for establishment of baseline data information technology (IT) application for energy accounting/auditing and IT based consumer service centres. Part B of the project includes regular distribution-strengthening projects.


• Under Part A of APDRP, the Ministry of Power had approved detailed project reports for an amount of ` 214.38 crore submitted by KSEB for 43 town schemes. First installment of loan amounting to ` 64.31 crore has been disbursed by the PFC.

• Under Part A of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition/Data Monitoring System (SCADA/DMS), 3 cities of Kerala viz. Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode are eligible for SCADA/DMS project. An amount of ` 83.15 crore was sanctioned for these towns by PFC and disbursed `24.945 crore as loan.

• Under Part B of R-APDRP, Ministry of Power had approved 43 schemes at an estimated cost of `1078.30 crore.

• Distribution strengthening work in 40 towns is being done departmentally.

• As on Nov. 2013, work amounting to ` 210.13crore has been executed.


Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuthikaran Yojana (RGGVY)


5.105 The Rajiv Gandhi Grameen VidyutikaranYojana (RGGVY) was launched in April 2005 with the objective of providing all rural households access to electricity through the creation of an appropriate rural electricity infrastructure. Below poverty line (BPL) households are provided connections free of cost. The Government of India provides 90 per cent capital subsidy for projects under the scheme. Under the Rajiv Gandhi Grammeen Vidyuthikaran Yojana, sanction has been obtained to implement the scheme in 7 districts of Kerala, namely, Kasargod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram, Palakkad and Idukki for an amount of ` 221.75 crore. Implementation of the scheme in Idukki District has been completed. REC issued sanction on revised DPR for Kasargod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram and Palakkad for a total amount of` 114.57 crore.


5.106 The details of the financial and physical progress of implementation of RGGVY as on 30-09-2013 are shown in the Appendix 5.38



Non – Conventional Sources of Energy


Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT)


5.107 Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT) established by the Govt. of Kerala is functioning as an autonomous body under Power Department. ANERT is the nodal agency for the implementation and propagation of Non Conventional sources of energy in the State. ANERT has been designated as the state agency for Renewable Purchase Obligations and Renewable Energy Certificates, by the Kerala State Electricity Regulatory Commission (KSERC).

5.108 The major achievements of ANERT during 2013 are the following


• ANERT launched the 10,000 Rooftop Solar Power Plant programme in September 2012. The total capacity added would be 10 MW. This is expected to reduce the dependency of 10,000 consumers on the utility grid to the extent of 10 MW or 14 to 15 million units (MU) every year. ANERT would be providing a subsidy of ` 39,000 per system from State funds. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has approved support for the programme under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) at the rate of 30% of the cost of the system. They have approved the programme to be completed within a period of 2 years. 4340 numbers of Rooftop Solar Power Plants were installed as on 11.2013.

• ANERT had proposed to install 100 kW solar PV power plants in Government buildings, wholly from ANERT funds. The following buildings were selected: (i) Medical College – 20 kW, (ii) AGs office – 10 kW, (iii) ANERT HQ building (new) – 15 kW, (iv) Thycaud Women and Children Hospital – 40 kW, (v) State Planning Board – 20 kW. Tenders were invited and orders issued, and installation has commenced in most of the locations. The installation and commissioning is expected to be completed by January 2014.

• Deposit works such as Installation of 3 kW Solar PV power plants in 8 factories of CAPEX (total 24 kW) has been completed. Installation of solar lighting systems in CESS campus at Thiruvananthapuram has also been completed. Installation of SPV power plants at RARS of Kerala Agricultural University at Ambalavayal has been completed, and that at Homoeo College at Thiruvananthapuram is progressing.

• The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India had sanctioned 16 projects totalling 224 kWp solar photovoltaic power plants under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission programme. Of these 13 projects totalling 185.1 kWp was completed.

• Installation of Solar LED street lights were also completed in three municipalities such as Neyyattinkara, Palakkad and Iringalakkuda, Cliff House, Manmohan Bunglow, Homoeo Medical College, Animal Husbandary farm, Mannoorkkonam Lake Pattom, Sankar Square Palayam.

• The solar lantern programme (28,000 nos. of CFL lanterns with a state subsidy of Rs.1000) is almost complete.

• During 2012-13, under Solar thermal water heating systems, 4960 evacuated tube collector systems (with 7440 sq.m collector area) and 675 nos. of flat plate collector systems (with 1350 sq.m collector area) were installed.

• 3967 biogas plants were installed under the 2012-13 programme (1244 nos. under MNRE programme, and 2723 nos. under state programme).

• ANERT has installed 11344 improved chulhas under 2012-13 programme (domestic - 3434 nos. under general category, 7091 nos. under SC/ST and total housing scheme, and 819 community models).

• Under the programme of Wind resource assessment, four 80m wind monitoring stations were installed and commissioned during 2012-13.


Kerala Solar Energy Policy 2013


i. Increase the installed capacity of the solar sector in the State to 500MW by 2017 and 2500 MW by 2030;

ii. Contribute to long term energy security of the State of Kerala as well as ecological security by reduction in carbon emission;

iii. Define end users who can adapt solar in a big way and target them;

iv. Adopt a multi-pronged approach in targeting different groups of consumers;

v Deploy package of incentives and disincentives for identified groups;

vi Adapt solar to trigger a paradigm shift in the usage of energy at the micro

and macro levels;

vii Generate large direct and indirect employment opportunities in solar and

allied industries;

viii Create skilled and semi-skilled man power resources for installation and maintenance of the solar systems through promotion of technical and other related training facilities;

ix Promote entrepreneurs / startups industries / institutions in the State that are engaged in the development of innovative solar based systems;

x Create an R&D hub by establishment of institutional collaborations with educational institutions, research centres, industries, utility, etc. for working towards applied research and commercialization of nascent technologies to accelerate deployment of various combinations of solar power technologies and solar- based hybrid co-generation technologies which will focus on improving efficiency in existing systems, reducing cost of balance of system


Energy Management Centre-Kerala


5.109 Energy Management Centre (EMC) - Kerala was established in the year 1996 with the prime objective of promoting energy efficiency in all sectors of economy. In 2003, EMC was designated as the State Designated Agency to enforce Energy Conservation Act 2001 in the State. The Small Hydro Promotion Cell constituted by Government of Kerala for the implementation of Small Hydro Power (SHP) Projects is functioning in EMC.


Activities and achievements of EMC during 2012-13


• EMC saved 1% of the total energy in the State through various sources such as electricity, oil, coal, LPG and firewood.

• For the outstanding achievement in the field of energy conservation, EMC received the National Energy Conservation Awards 2012, in the category of second best SDA.

• EMC has completed the installation of 100 LED Street lights in 41 municipalities and 4 corporations.

• EMC has also developed “Almanac Fed Automatic Street Light control system” which switch ON and OFF based on the sun rise and sun set time.

• Launched Energy Smart School Program in CBSE Schools in Kerala by Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam, Former President of India. Prizes for the winners of Energy Smart School/ Nalekkithiri Oorjam programme for the year 2011-12 were distributed.

• EMC has set up an energy information bureau for better reach of energy conservation messages to public and for addressing their queries on energy conservation.

• EMC has conducted Investment Grade Energy Audit in 28 Government Buildings. As part of it , EMC selected Secretariat , Collectorates of Thrissur, Kozhikode & Ernakulam and Vikas Bhavan, Thiruvananthapuram for retrofit of energy efficient equipments and other energy efficiency measures and achieved saving of 8 lakh units of electricity.

• In order to make industries energy efficient and to reduce their energy intensity, Government of Kerala has made mandatory Energy Audit for HT/EHT for high rise buildings, apartments in the state. The energy audit would give a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction, preventive maintenance and quality control programs which are vital for production and utility activities. Energy Management Centre has empanelled 23 energy audit firms to carry out mandatory energy audits.

• EMC has given intensive training to selected students from NSS Technical Cell to carry out energy audits in small and medium scale government buildings.

• Bhoomikkoru Chitram- EMC conducted Cartoon/ Cartoon film making competition in association with IT@School. Through this programme, students could develop their knowledge base on energy conservation and making animation.

• SAVE+ programme in association with Malayala Manorama Weekly can save about 7 lakh unit of electricity.

• EMC developed Almanac Fed Streetlight Control system and a control system for automatic on & off for refrigerators. These systems enable peak load reduction.

• EMC has prepared Kerala State Small Hydro Power Policy and published. EMC got two assignments from Idukki District panchayat ie, renovation of 50 kW Kallar Project and synchronization of 110 kW Mankulam project in KSEB Grid. The Mankulam project has been commissioned and Idukki District panchayat became the first panchayat in India selling power to utility.

• EMC has got project assistance from MNRE to implement 50 Pico Hydro projects. Out of 35 projects allotted, 18 projects have already been commissioned.


Department of Electrical Inspectorate


5.110 The Electrical Inspectorate is functioning under the Ministry of Power, Government of Kerala. Safety inspections are carried out and sanction for energisation for all HT/ EHT and other medium voltage installation in the State are issued by this department. Enquiry of all electrical accidents occurring in the State and forwarding the enquiry report to the Government and taking actions against responsible person/authority are also done by this department.


Activities and achievements of Electrical Inspectorate during 2012-13


5.111 During the year 2012-13 CT testing equipments and power quality analisers were procured for conducting effective inspections / enquiry. The infrastructure to upgrade 4 existing Laboratories in Kottayam, Ernakulam, Palakkad and Kozhikode has completed and with the procurement of Automatic Energy Meter Test Set. These Laboratories can be upgraded to NABL Standards.


5.112 The motto of MTSL is to provide testing and calibration of various types of electrical equipment. At present calibration facilities is available for voltage, current, resistance, frequency, power, power factor and energy. The testing facilities include pre-commissioning tests for protection relays and instrument transformers. Also conducts some pre-commissioning tests for power transformers, cables and circuit breakers. All calibrations and tests are conducting as per national and international standards.


5.113 For the year 2013-14, the tendering of major components was completed through e-tendering and the process of procurement of equipments is in progress.


5.114 The Meter Testing and Standards Laboratory at Thiruvananthapuram attached to the Department is the only Laboratory in the State under the State Government which has got NABL (National Accreditation Board for Calibration and Testing laboratories) accreditation, for Electro Technical Calibration for the parameters AC & DC voltage and current, resistance &power. Accreditation for the parameter ENERGY by the NABL is received recently. This Laboratory is the first and only one in the State with NABL Accreditation for energy.


5.115 For the effective implementation of SQMS in Public Services Organisations, the department could achieve the prestigious ‘SEVOTHAM CERTIFICATION’ (Service Quality Management System Certification) as per I.S.15700: 2005 from the Bureau of Indian Standards. It is the first department in the country, which bags this certification.


5.116 The department has received the first e-governance Award from the Honourable Chief Minister of Kerala for being the first department in the State for speedy and diligent implementation of SPARK. Also the department has received e-governance award 2009 for in house development and maintenance of cost effective touch screen information KIOSK.


Kerala State Electricity Regulatory Commission (KSERC)


5.117 The KSERC is a statutory organization of quasi-judicial nature constituted under the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act, established in the year 2002. During this period, this statutory body has taken all efforts to set up a fair, transparent, modern and objective electricity regulatory process in the State of Kerala.


Mission of the Commission


• To promote competition, efficiency and economy in the activities of the Electricity Industry within the State of Kerala.

• To regulate the power purchase and procurement process of the distribution licensees for sale, distribution and supply of electricity within the State of Kerala.

• To determine the tariff for generation, transmission, wheeling and supply of electricity, wholesale, bulk or retail, as the case may be, within the State of Kerala.


Challenges in the Energy Sector


• Inadequate capacity addition over the years leading to massive in-house demand supply gap.

• Hydel power dominated supply scenario.

• Negligible share of Renewable Energy in the Energy mix.

• Losses/inefficiencies of the main power utility.

• Gap between energy conservation potential and its realisation.

• Limited presence of Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and Co-Generating Stations (CGS).

• Limited penetration of star labeled products.

• Insufficient interventions/incentives to promote energy conservation and thereby manage demand.

• No coal based plant, no gas based plant.

• Energy price volatility.


Outlook for Energy Sector


• The State shall become power sufficient by the end of the 12th plan period.

• Renovation and modernisation of old hydel stations shall be carried out to extend their life and to augment generating capacity.

• AT&C losses shall be brought down to a sustainable level of 15% and below.

• 100% electrification of the State shall be achieved.

• 400 kV transmission backbone across the state shall be implemented.

• Life extention and reducing the cost of generation by way of conversion of fuel to natural gas may be explored in the case of BDPP and KDPP.

• Demand side management activities shall be continued by improving efficiency of the programme.

• Hydel projects to be speeded up.

• To achieve the goal of “Total Smokelessness” in Kerala homes by replacing the 3 million inefficient conventional firewood chulhas presently in use in the state, with high efficiency improved stoves or household type biogas plants.

• To establish the techno-economic and social feasibility of community based gasifier cum electricity generation plants, as well as community based biogas plants, with piped distribution of cooking gas, to be operated by reputed NGOs or Kudumbashree Units.

• To achieve an installed capacity of 500 MW using wind energy, through Public as well as Private WEGs.

• To achieve an installed capacity of 500 MW in Solar Photovoltaics.

• To ensure that every Electric Water Heater installed in Kerala is replaced by or is accompanied by a Solar Water Heater, by making their installation mandatory in all new buildings.

• To achieve an installed capacity of 250 MW in Small and Medium Hydro, through KSEB, Jilla Panchayaths, as well as Private investors.

• Private participation in energy development.

• Conserving depleting reserves.




Urban Infrastructure


5.118 Rapid urbanisation and intense commercial development in cities has necessitated the creation of new mass transport system in cities and improvement of existing transportation system. The Government of Kerala has decided to implement Metro Rail system in Kochi and Mono Rails in Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode. The foundation stone for Kochi Metro Rail was laid by the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India on 13th September 2012 at Kochi. A state owned special purpose vehicle for implementing Mono Rail projects in Kozhikode and Thiruvananthapuram has been created.


5.119 In Kerala, urban centres are concentrated along major arterial and sub-arterial roads. This has resulted in the concentration of commercial establishments along the main road routes and highways. Therefore, there is an acute crunch for parking space. A multilevel vehicle parking system is essential to ensure safety to the vehicles. Steps have already been taken to provide such facilities in major cities in the State. Due to the enormous increase in the number of motor vehicles, traffic congestion and environmental pollution shoots up at an alarming rate. Encouragement to walking and cycling is essential to mitigate the above problems. Construction of separate walk-ways and cycling paths in major cities are also being considered by the government.


Urban Development Programmes in Infrastructure


5.120 The major Urban Development Programmes implemented at the state level are given below.


Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT)


5.121 The Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) is a centrally sponsored scheme launched by GOI during the year 2005-06 to improve the infrastructure in small and medium towns in the country in a planned manner. The scheme is for a period of seven years. In Kerala, 61 urban local bodies (excluding Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi Corporations, Thrippunithura and Kalamasseri Municipalities) are eligible for getting financial assistance under the scheme.The funding pattern is 80:20 shared by the central and state governments. The State Share (20%) would be equally shared (ie.10% each) by state government and the participating urban local self governments. Under the scheme 25 projects were approved by Government of India for the 22 municipalities of the state. This includes 13 Water Supply Projects and 11 Solid Waste Management Projects and one Sewerage Project.Details of projects approved under UIDSSMT are given in Appendix 5.39


Capital Region Development Project


5.122 The Capital Region Development Project (CRDP) was introduced in 2002 to improve the quality of life of people in the capital city by strengthening and improving the critical infrastructures like roads, water supply, solid waste management, surface water drainage, city beautification and bus terminals. Details of projects undertaken by Capital Region Development Programme are given in Appendix.5.40.


Development Authorities In Urban Infrastructure


i) Thiruvananthapuram Development Authority (TRIDA)


5.123 Thiruvananthapuram Development Authority (TRIDA) was constituted for the implementation of projects for planned and scientific development of Thiruvananthapuram city and adjoining areas. The jurisdiction of TRIDA extends to Thiruvananthapuram Corporation and 10 grama panchayaths covering an area of 293.65 square kms. TRIDA has been appointed as the nodal agency for the land acquisition related works as a part of the Capital Region Development Programme. Under this programme, 12 roads totaling to a distance of 42.6 Kms have been taken up for improvements. The land acquisition for widening of roads has been completed and the land was handed over to the Kerala Road Fund Board (KRFB) for road widening works. The construction of a flyover at Bakery Junction was completed. Details of major projects undertaken by TRIDA are given in Appendix 5.41.


(ii) Greater Cochin Development Authority (GCDA)


5.124 Greater Cochin Development Authority (GCDA) is an autonomous body constituted under the Local Self Government Department of the Government of Kerala. The GCDA aims at formulating and implementing various urban development schemes and projects for the welfare of the general public in the area coming under its jurisdiction. The jurisdiction of this authority covers an area of 732 sq.kms consisting of Cochin Corporation, 9 Municipalities and 29 Panchayaths. GCDA activities are generally non-remunerative and welfare oriented public utility services benefiting the urban residents and neighbouring population. Government have recently revived the Development Authorities of Thrissur, Kozhikode and Kollam.The details of major programmes under taken by GCDA are given in Appendix 5.42.


Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project (KSUDP) (EAP)


5.125 The Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project is an externally aided project funded bythe ADB for addressing the challenges thrown up by urbanisation.KSUDP deals with the improvements, upgradation and expansion of existing urban infrastructure facilities and basic urban environmental services in five Municipal Corporations of the state viz; Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur and Kozhikode.


The project components are:

• Promote good governance in municipal management.

• Develop and expand urban infrastructure like urban road transport, water supply, sewerage and sanitation, strom water drainage and waste management, community infrastructure, Livelihood promotion, low cost sanitation, poverty social fund and administrative cost etc.

• Formulate, support programmes for improving urban social services for the elderly, destitute, women and street children.


Details of major projects included under KSUDP are given in Appendix 5.43.


Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)


5.126 Cities and towns of India constitute the world’s second largest urban system. Government of India has approved a mission mode approach for implementation of urban infrastructure improvement programme in a time bound manner in selected cities. The mission entrusted with this task is known as the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission. The mission was launched in 2005 and continued till 2012. Corporations of Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi were selected as mission cities from Kerala State.


5.127 JNNURM the flagship scheme of Government of India after an initial set back has now in a dynamic stage of implementation in the state through the spirited team work.


5.128 The Brahmapuram solid waste plant of Kochi corporation, a mile stone in the Clean Kerala Mission has been commissioned during the year 2008 and the construction of RDF Plant is also completed.The original project envisages setting up of Solid Waste Management facility in Kochi Corporation area and also two adjoining Municipalities and 13 Grama Panchayats. Works on 2 Municipalities viz., Thripunithara and Kalamassery have been arranged and is in progress. Kochi Water Supply Project has also moved forward. As the original sewerage project was not technically feasible a fresh project adopting latest Sewage Treatment Technology has been prepared and submitted for approval. The road works in Kochi Corporation and procurement of buses under economic stimulus programme has also been started and is in progress. The three important Rail Road Overbridge construction in Kochi is also envisaged in the Project.


5.129 Similarly for Trivandrum works relating to the Water Supply Project have been arranged. Under the Sewerage Project the Sewerage Treatment plant work has already been in progress. For the network project the land acquisition is in progress. Sewerage phase II bids have been invited for the construction of a Sewage Treatment Plant in Medical College Campus and also for providing Sewerage Network in coastal areas. Out of this, the bids for construction of STP is under evaluation and bids for bringing sewage to the treatment plant at Muttathara has been awarded and 35% work has been completed. In Solid Waste Management almost all works have been arranged and is in progress. The Storm Water-Drain Project is being executed by 5 different agencies and the works of the Irrigation Department has already been completed. Procurement of buses under economic stimulus project also been taken up and is expected to complete by March 2014. E-governance is an important project being implemented in both the mission cities.


5.130 Admissible components included in the mission are redevelopment of inner city areas, water supply and sanitation, sewerage and solid waste management, construction and improvement of drains/storm water drains, urban transport including roads, highways/expressways/MRTS/metro projects, parking lots/spaces on Public Private Partnership basis, development of heritage areas, prevention and rehabilitation of soil erosion/landslides only in case of special category states where such problems are common and preservation of water bodies.


5.131 The funding pattern of Thiruvananthapuram Corporation is Government of India 80%, Government of Kerala 10%, ULB 10% and that of Kochi Corporation is Government of India 50%, Government of Kerala 30% and ULB 20%. Details of projects approved for implementation under JNNURM are given in Appendix 5.44.


5.132 Most of the state level reforms, urban local body level and optional reforms insisted under the scheme have been successfully achieved in the state.


Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP)


5.133 Integrated Housing and Slums Development Programme (IHSDP) was launched during 2006-07 aiming at the holistic development of slums in urban areas. The basic objective of the scheme is to strive for Holistic Slum Development with a healthy environment by providing adequate shelter and basic infrastructure facilities to the slum dwellers of the identified urban areas. The programme was formulated by combining two erstwhile schemes viz. Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) and National Slum Development Programme (NSDP). IHSDP is to be implemented in all towns and cities identified as per 2001 census except cities/towns covered under JNNURM. (Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi Corporations).


5.134 The components for assistance under IHSDP include all slum development/ improvement/relocation projects including new house construction/improvement of houses and infrastructural facilities. The financing pattern of the scheme is in the ratio of 80:20 by Central and State Governments. Beneficiary share (12% for General and 10% for SC/ST) is stipulated for projects for individual beneficiaries like housing. Out of 20% State share, the balance fund after deducting beneficiary share will be borne equally by the ULB and State (Maximum state share is 10% of the total Project Cost).


5.135 The achievements of the scheme are summarized in Appendix 5.45

Details of projects approved by GOI and fund released to 53 ULBs are given in Appendix 5.46.


Rajeev Awas Yojana


5.136 This is a new scheme under JNNURM aiming at slum free cities in India. The intention is to create a slum free nation in five years. Under the scheme each state would prepare a State Slum-free Plan of Action (POA). The state POA would include the cities identified by the State and intended to be covered under RAY in five years. Government of India had given sanction to prepare Slum Free City Plan of Action of five corporations (Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur and Kozhikode) of Kerala. At present the main work in Kudumbasree under RAY is preparation of slum free city plan by conducting detailed MIS based socio economic survey and GIS based geo-referenced mapping including total station survey.


Non-Motorized Urban Conveyance initiatives


5.137 Due to the enormous increase in the number of vehicles traffic congestion and air pollution shoot up at an alarming rate. In order to encourage walking and cycling, it is essential to provide separate facilities in the major towns. The following components are proposed to be implemented under the plan.

• Dedicated Cycle tracks

• Uninterrupted walkways

• Safe pedestrian crossings

• Identification of arterial roads/bye-lanes/gullies suited for safe cycling

• Maintenance of these roads/lanes

• Providing destination/time boards in these roads/lanes

• Guided cycle circuits connecting tourists/heritage spots

• Arranging rallies/Guided walks for creating awareness

• Guided walking / cycling for school children

• Providing cycle tracks in important city centers

• Inter departmental co-ordination and stake holder/NGO consultation

• Implementation of the project on a PPP basis in selected zones


Other Schemes for Urban Development


Various Poverty reduction and Employment generation programmes for the Urban Sector in Kerala include


Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)


5.138 Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme launched in December 1997. The fund is shared on 75:25 basis by both Central and State Governments. The objective of this integrated poverty alleviation programme is to provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed and under employed poor by setting up self employment ventures and taking up wage employment in public works. The programme is being implemented by the Urban Local Bodies through Community Based Organization of the poor.


5.139 Kudumbashree has organized community based organization (CBOs) of the poor in all the 65 urban local bodies in the state. There are 30614 Neighbourhood Groups (NHGs), 3120 Area Development Societies (ADSs) and 94 Community Development Societies (CDSs) under Kudumbashree working as Community Based Organisations in the urban areas. The CBOs in the urban areas act also as Thrift and Credit Societies and facilitate savings and credit to the poor. District wise details of NHGs, ADSs, CDSs and thrift fund mobilized are given in Appendix.5.47


5.140 During the period 2007-08 to 2012-13 8150 individual enterprises (USEP) and 1341 group enterprises (UWSP) were set up in SJSRY scheme. The Appendix 5.48 and 5.49 show the financial and physical achievements of SJSRY (2007-08 to 2013-14). Details of micro enterprises and group enterprises created under the schemes are given in Appendix 5.50 and 5.51. The activities of group enterprises vary from solid waste management to the computer hardware assembling.


Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP)


5.141 Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) is a sub-component of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) and implemented through Kudumbashree. The duration of mission is seven years beginning from 2005-06. Only two corporations in the state,Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi come under the scheme. The objective of the scheme is to provide basic services and civic amenities with a view to provide utilities to urban poor. A City Development Plan (CDP) would be required before the city can access mission fund. The CDP of Thiruvananthapuram include 5 adjacent Grama Panchayats in addition to Corporation area. 13 adjacent Panchayats and Thripunithara, Kalamassery Municipalities are included in the CDP of Kochi.


5.142 The total allocation under BSUP to the State during the mission period is ` 250 crore. Projects are sanctioned based on the Detailed Project Report submitted by the mission cities. The Central Share will be released in 4 instalments (25% each) based on submission of Utilization Certificate for 70% expenditure of the funds released. The fund sharing pattern for Thiruvananthapuram is 80:20 by Central and State Governments. The State’s share is borne equally by the State and Local Governments. For Kochi Corporation the sharing pattern is 50:50 by Central and State Governments. Out of 50% of State Share, 30% would be born by the State Government and the balance amount after deducting beneficiary share would be born by the respective ULBs.

5.143 Four phases of projects worth ` 208.01 crores and 3 projects worth ` 135.66 crore was sanctioned for Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi Corporation respectively. Details of projects sanctioned under BSUP for the two Corporations are given in Appendix 5.52 and 5.53.


The physical achievements of the scheme are summarized in Appendix 5.54.


Ayyankali Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme


5.144 Ayyankali Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme started during 2009-10 in the state is considered as a unique initiative in the State. It is intended to address the unemployment and under-employment problems in the urban society. The objective of the scheme is to enhance livelihood security in urban areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment to every household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual labour. Creation of durable community assets and strengthening the livelihood resource base of the urban poor is also envisaged in the scheme. The scheme is structured in the pattern of Mahathma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. While providing employment, priority shall be given to women in such a way that at least 50% of the beneficiaries shall be women who have registered and requested for work under the scheme. Since the scheme is its initial stage of implementation no financial or physical achievement has been reported.


5.145 The Financial achievements of major schemes implemented under urban development sector are given in Appendix.5.55.




Communication Infrastructure


Postal Network of Kerala


5.146 Indian postal system is the largest in the World with a network of about 1.55 lakh Post Offices, of which 1.39 lakh (89.78 %) were in rural areas and 15826 (10.22%) in urban in the country. The postal network consists of four categories of post offices namely, Head Post Offices, Sub Post Offices, Extra Departmental Sub Post Offices and Extra Departmental Branch Post Offices.

5.147 Kerala Postal circle includes the entire State of Kerala, the Union Territory of Lakshadweep and Mahe under the Union Territory of Puducherry. Kerala is the only postal circle where every village has at least one post office. As on 31.09.2013, there are 5066 post offices in the circle, of which 1506 are Departmental post offices and 3560 Extra Departmental post offices. On an average each post office in the State serves an area of 7.69 and a population of 6607 as against the national average of 21.21 and a population of 7175 people. 83 percent of the post offices are in the rural areas. Major Activities of Kerala Postal Circle is given in Box 5.8. More details are available in the Appendix 5.56 , 5.57, 5.58 and 5.59.


Box 5.8

Major Activities of Kerala Postal Circle during 2012-13 up to 30.09. 2013

• All the 1506 departmental post offices in the Circle are computerised

• Providing new e-based and value added services

• Introduction of International Speed Post or EMS - a facility available from India to 99 countries

• Two new parcel products of India “Express Parcel” and “Business Parcel” introduced

• Introduction of Logistics Post Air to the customers for getting end to end services on the logistics value char for faster transmission /delivery of their consignments

• Tie up with Kerala State Government for Corporate e-post

i. Tie up with Commissioner for Entrance Exam for selling Application forms under Retail post

ii. Tie up with director, LBS Centre for Science & Technology

iii. Kerala Water Authority under e-payment

iv. BSNL under e-payment

v. Tie up with Local Self Government for tax collection




5.148 Telecommunication is one of the prime support services needed for rapid growth and modernisation of the economy. The telecommunication services in India have improved significantly since independence. Kerala Telecom circles serves the whole of Kerala State, the Union Territory of Lakshadweep and part of Union Territory of Puducherry (Mahe). The circle has 11 major SSAs and one minor SSA of Lakshadweep. The status of telecom sector in Kerala is given in Box 5.9


Box 5.9

Status of Telecom Sector in Kerala as on 31.03.2013

• No. of Telephone Exchanges

• Equipped Capacity

• Working Connections

• Average No. of Telephone per Sq.Km

• Telephone Density

• Telephone density (Rural)

• Telephone density (Urban)

• Market share of BSNL in Kerala





334 per 000 population

230 per 000 population

626 per 000 population



5.149 All the Panchayats and all the villages in the Circle have been provided with public telephones. There is wide network of over 46775 Public Telephones for easy access to the average public and the same has become very popular among the people. The State has a modern telecom network spanning its length and breadth and comprises of state-of-the-art Digital switches interconnected by reliable Optical Fibre/Microwaves/Satellite media. The State is served by 1266 automatic exchanges all of which are Digital electronic.


5.150 BSNL has launched WIMAX (Wireless Broadband Service) service with mobility for the first time in the State with 450 towers covering all the SSA Head Quarters. In the ( Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) front, BSNL Kerala has already implemented all India roaming facility and Evolution Data Optimal (EVDO) services offering High Speed Internet Access at affordable rates. The Public Grievance Cell is working at Circle level with ‘12727’ and District level with ‘12728’ other than computerised ‘198’ fault repair services. Call Centre with ‘1500’ is fully functioning for Kerala. Call Centre for mobile service is ‘9447024365’. Internet helpline is also working at 12678 for Kerala Circle. The major achievements of BSNL as on 31.03. 2013 is given in the Box 5.10. More details are available in the Appendix 5.60.


Box 5.10

The major achievements of BSNL as on 31.03. 2013

• The total number of Telephone connections working is around 107 lakh (Landline 29 lakh, WLL 2.75 lakh and Mobile 75.45 lakh)

• There are 614998 Broadband Customers are available in the Circle. Broadband service is ‘on demand’ in almost all Exchanges

• 245060 3G connections have been provided

• 15480 WIMAX connections provided

• 20484. 017 RKM of OF cable has been laid

• 844 Colleges are covered under National Mission for Education Project (NME) and about 9260 broadband connections have been provided

• BB connectivity to 1656 Akshaya Centres are provided

• BB Kiosks have been provided at 363 locations under USOF

• Provided 872 VPNoBB connections to Grama Panchayats and 1100 Village offices in twelve districts

• Provided about 935 BB connections to Kudumbasree Offices and 472 connections to NREGS

• Provided about 652 Combined VPN connections to Excise Department and 566 connections to Kerala Police


All India Radio and Doordarsan


5.151 The Audio Video Communication wing in the Electronic Media Division of I&PRD is engaged in producing and broadcasting various video magazine programmes through electronic media. They include Navakeralam -bimonthly inter active programme with Hon.Ministers in Doordarshan, Priyakeralam - a weekly development news magazine programme in Doordarshan, Janapadham - a weekly development programme in AIR and Sutharyakeralam - a live complaint redressal programme through video conferencing by the Hon’ble Chief Minister is telecast by Doordarshan and its audio version is broadcast over all stations of All India Radio. The programme, Sutharyakeralam is being aired on Doordarshan every Sunday at 7.20 pm and repeat telecast can be seen the following Monday at 9.30 pm. Its radio format is broadcast over All India Radio every Sunday at 8.30 am. All stations in Kerala broadcast this programme. During 2012-13 and up to December 2013, 72 episodes of each programmes were telecast.



Information Technology


5.152 The State of Kerala has always been a forerunner among the states of India in the adoption and application of ICT be it the services /support to its citizens or enabling smoother functioning of the business community. Numerous initiatives have been taken up over the years, which have enabled the State to be at the forefront in implementing ICT projects and pioneer in E-governance activities. Government of Kerala acknowledges the critical importance of Information and Communication Technology as the key vehicle for the State’s overall equitable development and reiterates its commitment to the Sector.


Box. 5.11

IT Policy 2012 - Vision & Objectives

• To Plan, develop and market the state as the most preferred IT/ITES investment /business destination in India

• To utilize ICT for the effective, transparent and efficient delivery of services to the citizens scarnlessly through an integrated e-governance framework

• To make the state of Kerala a 100 percent e-literate and digital society

• Achieve up to 5,00,000 direct employment in the ICT sector by 2020

• Create at least 3,000 technology startups in the state by 2020

• Ensure electronic delivery of services to citizens and business across all departments and functions to achieve the objective of Transparency and efficiency.

• Enable“SMART” (Simple, Measurable, Accountable , Responsive and Transparent) governance through digital work flow and automation system

• Re-engineer the Government business practices and rules to suit the delivery of electronic service

• Have the best in class ICT and allied infrastructure thereby ushering efficient and effective developments within the government and in the sector as such.

• Provide broadband connectivity to all Government offices up to Panchayat level through OFC by 2014


5.153 Kerala State Information Technology Mission (KSITM), Indian Institute for Information Technology and Management – Kerala (IIITM-K), Techno Park, Info Park, Cyber Park and Kerala State Information Technology Infrastructure Ltd. (KSITIL) are the major agencies involved in the implementation of Information Technology schemes in the State. The Plan outlay for Information Technology during 2012-13 is 27% higher than that in 2011-12. The outlay during 2013-14 is `232.58 crore which is 6% higher than the previous year. The details of Plan Outlay and Expenditure table are given in Table 5.6.


Table 5.6

Plan Outlay and Expenditure

(` in Lakh)

Sl.No Agency Annual Plan 2011-12 Annual Plan 2012-13

Annual Plan 2013-14


Outlay Expdr. Outlay Expdr. Outlay

Expdr. (upto Nov.)

1 KSITM 5039.00 2166.50





2 IIITM-K 900.00 900.00





3 Technopark, Infopark and Cyberpark 7850.00 8171.13





4 KSITIL 2400.00 2400.00





5 Others 1000.00 500.00





  Total 17339.00 14137.63






Kerala State Information Technology Mission (KSITM)


5.154 Kerala State Information Technology Mission (KSITM) is an autonomous nodal IT implementation agency for Department of Information Technology, Government of Kerala which provides managerial support to various initiatives of the Department.


5.155 Kerala State Information Technology Mission is formed to take over the existing facilities, equipments and other assets of the Mission Group on Information Technology (IT) which has been set up by the Government. All the activities of the Mission Group namely, assisting the IT Department in the implementation of the IT policy declared by the Government, initiate efforts at e-governance by providing effective and citizen friendly government interfaces, promotion of the State as an IT destination for industries and use of IT as a tool to upgrade the standard of living of the people in all walks of life, shall be carried out by the Mission. Government of Kerala acknowledges the critical importance of Information Technology as an instrument for the State’s overall development and remains deeply committed to its dissemination, both as a crucial engine of economic growth and as a tool for increasing productivity, speed & transparency in governance and improved quality of life for the common man.


Box 5.12

Primary Responsibilities of KSITM

• Interfacing between the Government and the industry.

• Interacting with potential investors.

• Strengthening the IT/ITES industry base.

• Holding promotional campaigns for hard selling the state.

• ICT dissemination to bridge the digital divide.

• E-governance.

• Developing Human Resources for IT and ITES.

• Advising the Government on policy matters.


Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management–Kerala (IIITM-K)


5.156 The Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management – Kerala (IIITM-K) promotes higher education and IT related information services across Kerala and beyond.


Box 5.13

Vision and Objectives of IIITM-K

• To be a premier institution of excellence in Science, Technology, Systems and Management related to Information in diverse fields.

• Develop professionals and leaders of high calibre imbued with values of entrepreneurship, ethics and social responsibility

• Actively promote higher education, IT enabled services and industry across Kerala and beyond through its education programs and services


5.157 The institute has a cloud computing facility with two high ended HP Proliant server and four work stations. They also has a cluster computing facility and image processing facility. Apart from this, institute hosts high end blade servers for different projects such as Computational Chemistry, Geographical Informatics Systems, KISSAN Kerala, Plan Space, Agri Informatics and Medical Image Computing and Signal Processing etc,


Box 5.14

Projects Implemented by IIITM-K

• Set up and inter disciplinary Centre for Excellence in Applied Machine Intelligence and Pattern Analysis

• Establishing School of Continuing Studies at IIITM-K

• Centres for Innovation and Technology Incubation at IIITM-K

• Library and Information Service

• Establishment R&D facilities for scientific data mining

• Proposal to establish Virtual Resource Centre for Language Computing at IIITM-K

• Proposal for Research in Localisation and Adoption of Open Standards in e-Governance Project

• Establishment of Advanced School of Computational Science

• Integrating Ecology, Information Technology and Society Ecological Informatics




5.158 Techno Park has been growing steadily both in size and employee strength. The park is now home to nearly 300 companies, employing more than 45000 IT/ITeS professionals. With the commissioning of Technopark Phase III, Techno Park became the largest IT Park in India. Technopark has become the single largest source of employment in Kerala, with over 45,000 people working directly and 1,80,000 indirectly.


5.159 Total investment upto March 2013 is `4000 crores, total turnover upto March 2013 is ` 2850 crore and the total export upto March 2013 is `3493 crore. Details of physical achievements of Technopark are given in Appendix 5.61.




5.160 Info Park is a Society wih a target of creating 1 lakh IT jobs by 2020, by providing cost effective and energy efficient layouts for small, medium and large IT companies to set up their operations in the green, eco-friendly campus.


5.161 Info Park in the financial year 2012-13 registered all – time high software export revenue of `1534 crore, which is an increase of `634 crore showing a 46% growth year over year. Apart from its best in class infrastructure at Kochi, Infopark has two more Parks at Cherthala and Thrissur, through a hub and spoke developmental plan.


5.162 Through the 153 companies functioning from all the parks together, total employment strength has grown to 20500, which is an additional 2500 employment increase from previous year.


5.163 Total investment as on March 2013 is `1645crore and the turnover upto March 2013 is `1600crore. Total export during the financial year 2012-13 is `1534 crore.


At present Infopark has the following IT Parks


• Infopark Kochi – Phase I - 101 acres in Kakkanad, Ernakulam. There are 115 companies in the park with around 19700 employees

• Infopark Kochi – Phase II - 125 acres in Kunnathunad, Ernakulam. Phase 2 is planned to provide about 80000 additional employments in a span of 7-8 years.

• Infopark, Thrissur - 30 acres in Koratty. At present there are 27 companies providing jobs to nearly 600 IT professionals and it is expected to provide employment to nearly 3500 IT professionals in the near future.

• Infopark, Cherthala - 66 acres in Pallippuram, Alapuzha. Currently there are 9 companies functioning from this park, with about 200 employees.

The physical achievements of Infopark are furnished in Appendix 5.62.




5.164 Government of Kerala following its ‘Hub &Spoke’ model of development of IT industry in the State has established ‘Cyber Park’ in Kozhikode in January 2009 as a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 which will form the ‘hub’ in Kozhikode. Cyber Park has started the journey to set up an IT/ITeS parks in Kozhikode, Kannur and Kasaragod inside SEZ for the overall development of IT industry in the Malabar region.

5.165 While tapping into the large pool of locally available skilled resources and reputed educational institutions, the purpose of Cyber Park is to provide a friendly, cost effective and top of the line infrastructure to the IT/ITeS investors, there by acting as a catalyst for the social and infrastructure development of the region with a vision to provide unlimited employment opportunities and a substantial contribution to economic development of the state especially the Malabar region.


5.166 The total land available for Cyberpark is about 167.52 acres. The total investment upto March 2013 amounts to ` 6.34 crore. The physical achievements of Cyberpark are given in Appendix 5.63.


Kerala State IT Infrastructure Ltd (KSITIL)


5.167 Kerala State IT Infrastructure Ltd (KSITL) is a public limited company promoted by Government of Kerala with an objective of leveraging the valuable land assets owned by the Government and through viable financial models, generate enough funds and utilize the same for building up of IT Infrastructure in the State.


5.168 KSITIL has therefore been mandated by the Government of Kerala to be the vehicle for all IT infrastructure developments in the state in a Private Public Participation (PPP) model. KSITIL enjoys enormous advantages including preferential allocation of land for projects by Government and obtaining necessary clearances from Government. The business model for the company is to acquire land, create value addition to providing basic infrastructure like electricity, water road and compound wall, obtain SEZ status and such other Government approvals that may be required and then allot land to private developers for development of either IT SEZ or IT Parks.

The company has completed acquisition of 43 acres of land at Cyberpark – Kozhikode, 12 acres of land at Ambalapuzha, 60.61 acres of land at Cherthala has been purchased from KSIDC. In addition, Government land has been provided in the districts of Kollam, Alappuzha (Ambalapuzha and Cherthala), Thrissur, Kannur and Kasaragod for development of IT parks.


Outlook for IT Sector


• Improvement in quality of administrative services and governance through ICT revolution.

• E-governance which form an integral part of any economy which tries to achieve transparency, reliability, affordability in its services shall be encouraged.

• Green IT may be developed.

• IT Parks in new areas including hardware manufacturing will be promoted.

• Knowledge Cities are necessary.



Information & Publicity


5.176 Information and Public Relations Department is the nodal department for disseminating information concerning Government policies and priorities and performance of Government departments. The department facilitates feedback from the public, and ensures a healthy relationship between the government and the public by acting as a meaningful link between various stakeholders.


5.177 Maintaining Kerala pavilion at the India international trade fair in New Delhi, presenting tableau in the Republic Day parade, preparing printed publicity material, screening of feature films, production of documentaries and short films for serving the social and cultural interests of the state, archiving of newspapers, photos and videos, organizing Gandhi Jayanthi celebrations, reading week celebrations, theatre festival, media award presentation, etc are the important activities.


5.178 Two autonomous institutions namely, Kerala Press Academy and Centre for Development of Imaging Technology (C-DIT), working under this department accomplish the administrative, technical and promotional affairs of the public and private sector with the help of advanced technologies in the field of visual communication, journalism, etc.




5.178 This is a flagship programme initiated by the department and is a live complaint redressal forum where the Hon Chief Minister addresses the grievances of common people especially the poor.


Field Publicity and Exhibitions


5.179 Awareness programmes and campaign are the part and parcel of the public information system and mass media activities. The field publicity wing functioning at the Directorate of I&PRD organizes various event management activities on behalf of the government. At the district level, the field publicity wing is giving adequate publicity to Government policies and programmes. These campaign and awareness programmes are being arranged in the form of art and cultural programmes. Exhibitions and multimedia campaigns were launched for creating awareness on national integration, communal harmony, decentralized planning etc within and outside the state. It has been decided to erect LED display boards (video walls) at district HQs in a phased manner for dissemination of information on various development and welfare schemes of the government. One video wall has already been installed at Thiruvananthapuram.


Outlook for Infrastructure


Infrastructure development calls for huge investments as land is scarce and there is a huge demand - supply mismatch in roads, public transport, sources of energy, housing and other urban infrastructure. Keeping Kerala green while at the same time ensuring world class infrastructure will require tough policy choices, careful planning, optimal use of resources and a high degree of innovation and efficiency in implementation. While public funding and public agencies should continue to provide infrastructure, structuring of PPP Projects which are viable and acceptable to the Kerala context should be given priority in the coming years. The process of land aquisition needs to be streamlined , key policies and regulatory reforms should be fast - tracked, an infrastructure bill and a PPP policy with a robust dispute resolution framework should be put in place.