Chapter 2





The agricultural system in Kerala is unique and distinct from other states in terms of land utilization and cropping pattern. Plantation and cash crops , food crops, and homesteads are the predominant system of crop production in the state.The analysis of agro ecology of Kerala based primarily on climate , geomorphology, land use and soil variability resulted in delineation of five agroecological zones and twenty three widely varying agro ecological units with significant yield gaps .The supply side performance of agriculture in these agro ecological units is affected by a large number of factors like natural resources endowments including rainfall, location specific technology, infrastructure including irrigation, and the economic environment comprising price signals, and institutions .The agriculture production is usually seasonal and cyclical in nature and is vulnerable to natural phenomena such as drought, pests and diseases. All these factors make agriculture production risky, and highly dependent on the existence of good infrastructure, robust input supply, and price signals apart from technology. The agriculture in Kerala has undergone significant structural changes in the form of decline in the share of GSDP, indicating a shift from agrarian economy towards service sector dominated economy.The contribution of agriculture in the GSDP of the state has been steadily declining from 36.99 per cent in 1980-81 to 8.95 per cent in 2012-13.There has been a negative growth in all the years of the Eleventh plan period except in 2008-09. The crippling growth rate in agriculture has started a reversal in 2012-13 with the quick estimate indicating a positive performance.


This chapter deals with the performance of various agriculture crops and discusses the major concerns as well as the initiatives taken by Government to mitigate them. An analysis of Livestock development and Fisheries has also been made. Separate sections have been devoted to Water Resources, Forests and Environment, Rural Development and Food security bringing out the critical issues and recent key initiatives taken. Various sources of agricultural finance are also detailed in this chapter.


Performance of Agriculture


The growth performance of the agriculture and allied sector has been fluctuating across the plan periods. It witnessed a negative growth rate of 1.3 per cent in XIth Five Year Plan while a positive growth of 1.8 per cent in Xth Plan period.But there has been a turnaround in 2012-13, with the quick estimate indicating a growth rate of 4.39 per cent over the previous year,the sub sector wise growth rate being agriculture (5.62per cent), forestry and logging (1.26per cent) and fisheries (-2.79per cent). The revival is reported mainly due to the dynamism in the livestock sector.


2.2 Although the share has fallen to 8.95 per cent of GSDP, the robust performance of the sector in line with others is a matter to cheer considering the agrarian nature of the state and the role that it plays in providing livelihood to the people .The annual growth rate of agricultural income and share of agricultural GSDP for the last five years are shown in Table 2.1.


Table 2.1

Annual Growth rate in Agricultural Income and share of

agricultural GSDP in Kerala

SL No.


Rate of change over previous year Share of Agriculture and Allied Sectors in GSDP





















*Provisional ** Quick

Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics




Monsoon 2013


2.3 The pre monsoon rainfall received in the State from 1st March 2013 to 31st May 2013 was normal with a departure of -42 per cent from the normal. The actual rainfall received during the period was 218.9 mm. All the Districts except Kottayam and Wayanad recorded deficient rainfall. The percentage departure from normal was highest in Palakkad (-56per cent), Malappuram( -56 per cent) and Thrissur ( -56 per cent ) Districts.


2.4 South West monsoon current advanced over the Andaman Sea 3 days earlier than its normal date of 20th May and set in over Kerala on its normal date of 1st June. The South West monsoon covered the entire country by 16th June, about 1 month earlier than its normal date of 15th July. Out of the total 36 meteorological subdivisions, 14 subdivisions constituting 48 per cent of the total area of the country received excess season rainfall, 16 subdivisions (38 per cent of the total area of the country) received normal season rainfall and the remaining 6 subdivisions (14 per cent of the total area of the country) received deficient season rainfall.Out of the total of 641 districts, 100 were affected by moderate meteorological drought (seasonal rainfall deficiency of 26 per cent to 50 per cent), while 39 were affected by severe meteorological drought (seasonal rainfall deficiency of 51 per cent to 99 per cent). The actual rainfall received in Kerala during the South West Monsoon season (1st June to 30th September 2013) was 2570.3 mm as against the normal rainfall of 2039.6 mm which was 26 per cent excess. During the previous SW monsoon (2012) Kerala had received an actual rainfall of 1551.3 mm which was -24 per cent deficient. During 2013 SW monsoon season, 10 districts in the State received excess rainfall and 4 districts viz. Wayanad, Thrissur, Pathanamthitta and Kasaragod had normal rainfall. Excess rainfall was maximum in Idukki District with 47 per cent departure from normal.


Fig 2.1

South West Monsoon Rainfall received from 1st June – 30th Septr 2013




2.5 During the North East Monsoon season 2013 the State received 430.7 mm( till 18th December 2013) of rainfall as against 473 mm of normal rainfall which was normal with a percentage departure of -9 per cent.Five Districts in Kerala received deficient rainfall ( Alappuzha: -33 per cent, Kasaragod: -34 per cent, Idukki: -20 per cent, Palakkad: -26 per cent, and Wayanad : -29 per cent). District wise rainfall distribution in the state during 2013 is given as Appendix 2.1.


Fig 2.2

North East Monsoon Rainfall received from 1st October to 18th December 2013




 Land Use Pattern

2.6 Kerala is one of those states in India where land resources are put to more intensive use than anywhere else, mainly because of the low percapita availability of land in the state. Data on land use pattern for the year 2012-13 is given in Appendix 2.2. Out of a total geographical area of 38.86 lakh ha, one fourth was under forests, and one tenth of it was put to non agricultural use. Also, while the net sown area which accounts for 53 per cent of the total area, did not record any significant changes, the area sown more than once which accounted for 14 per cent of the total geographical area recorded a notable decline of 13 per cent from 6.2 lakh ha to 5.4 lakh ha in 2012-13. As a result, the gross cropped area registered a decline of 3 per cent. One notable feature is the decline in the area of barren and uncultivated land and an increase in permanent pastures and grazing land which although accounts for only 0.003 per cent of the total geographical area registered a sharp increase of 39 per cent in 2012-13 . The land use pattern is shown in Fig 2.3


 Fig 2.3

Land Use Pattern Of Kerala 2012-13



Trend in Area, Production and Productivity of Crops and Performance


2.7 Data regarding the area, production and productivity of important crops grown in Kerala are shown in Table 2.2 and Appendix 2.4 and 2.5. Out of a gross cropped area of 25.92 lakh ha. in 2012-13, food crops comprising rice, pulses and tapioca occupy 10.4 per cent. Kerala state which had
a low base in food production is facing serious challenges in retaining even this meager area. Kerala agricultural economy is undergoing structural transformation from the mid seventies by switching over a large proportion of its traditional crop area which was devoted to subsistence crops like rice and tapioca to more remunerative crops like banana and plantations.


Table 2.2

Area, Production and Productivity of Principal Crops


Sl. No.


Area (Ha.)

Production (MT)

Productivity (Kg./Ha.)
















Pulses including Tur
























































Other Plantains








































Tea $








Rubber #







Production of Coconut in Million Nuts, Productivity in numbers. Source; Directorate of Economics and 
Statistics. # Rubber Board, productivity based on tapped area. *Spices Board .** Coffee Board . $Tea Board


2.8 All the major crops except rubber, banana and other plantains showed decline in area in 
2012-13. While the production of rubber, pepper, tea, pulses, banana and other plantains showed an increase, all other crops showed a decline in production in 2012-13.



Table 2.3

Share of Rice to NSA ( Net Sown Area) of Kerala over the last 6 decades


Share of Rice in NSA (%)

Share of Tapioca in NSA (%)

Share of Pulses in NSA (%)

































 Source : Dept. of Economics and Statistics, GoK


2.10 Tapioca is another important food crop of Kerala which was popularised as a cereal substitute towards the end of 19th century itself in the State. The role of cassava in the food security of the state is even more prominent today with ever declining area and production under rice. The tapioca crop occupied 12.59 per cent of the NSA of the State in 1960-61 and the area expanded to 13.62 per cent of the NSA in the next decade. However the area started declining from 1990-91 onwards and dropped down to 3.39 per cent of the NSA by 2012-13.

2.11 About six decades back pulses occupied a prominence in the cropping system of the State. In 1960-61, it was cultivated in an area of 44120 ha with a production of 17550 tons though the productivity was low ( 398 Kg/ha). By 2000-01, the pulse area in the State drastically declined to less than 1/6th of its area in 1960-61which amounts to 0.32 per cent of NSA. By 2012-13, the pulse area in the State has dropped down to 0.14 per cent of the NSA though there was definite productivity enhancement..


Decline in Food Crop Production


2.12 Production trends of important food crops of the State over the last 6 decades is given in 
Table 2.4. In Commensurate with the decline in area, the production of food crops also declined drastically in the State. In the production scenario, early periods indicated production enhancement in case of rice. However rice production showed declining trends since 1980s and the lowest production is recorded in 2012-13. The state is producing onlyabout 12 per cent of our requirement(State Planning Board, 2011).


2.13 Though Tapioca continue to be a major substitute of staple food in Kerala till 1980s, shift in the cropping pattern of the State towards more profitable plantation crops affected its cultivation and the production started declining since 1990s. However due to the popularisation of High Yielding improved varieties and advanced production technologies coupled with better price, the crop is on the way to recapture its past glory in the current decade.


Fig 2.4

Production of major food crops in Kerala over the last 6 decades


Year Production(Tons)





































2.14 Though India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world, it imports a large quantity of pulses to meet the growing domestic needs. Accordingly, the projected pulse 
requirement for the year 2030 in the country is 32 million tons with an anticipated required growth rate of 4.2 per cent (Source : Indian Institute of Pulses Research, 2011). Production of the pulse crop in the State in 1960-61 was 17550 tons and the decline in area also reflected in the production frontier of this crop and the total production dropped down to roughly 3128 tons by 2011-12. However in 2012-13, the pulse production showed a slight enhancement.


2.15 Vegetables are another major food crop item for which the State is depending on the neighbouring states. In Kerala vegetables are cultivated in 31,449 ha, with 50 per cent of the cultivation confined to Palakkad, Idukki, Malappuram and Kollam districts. The production of vegetables in the State is estimated as 8.25 lakh MT taking into account the productivity as 12 MT/Ha. Vegetable production in the State is not sufficient to meet the requirement of the population, and efforts made through the department as well as through other agencies could not bridge the gap between demand and production and are still depending upon our neighbouring states for our daily requirement. By the end of 12th Five Year Plan, the requirement of vegetables for the state is estimated to be 38.62 lakh tons based on population projections (Source : Report of the Task Force on Vegetable Development, State Planning Board 2013). A comprehensive vegetable development project has been launched by the department of Agriculture during 2012-13 covering development of district clusters, school gardens, homestead vegetable development, grow bag and poly house based production and a dynamism is reported in reviving vegetable production in the state.


2.16 Increase in production of food crops would be possible mainly from improvements in productivity through the use of location specific technology generation and adoption and modernisation of agriculture coupled with appropriate policy measures. The stabilisation and augmentation of productivity assume critical importance, given the limited scope for increasing area under cultivation of food crops in the state.


System of Rice Intensification (SRI)


2.17 The yield of rice, despite decades of investment in plant breeding, has remained relatively unchanged. There are no known technical solutions presently available to improve rice productivity significantly. However, SRI is a well documented practice that has given promising results in India and elsewhere.System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as an alternate rice cultivation practice, developed in Madagascar 25 years ago, is gaining wider acceptance in many countries including India. SRI method claims to greatly enhance water productivity and grain yield. Benefits of SRI as abridged from the recent publication on Transforming Rice Production with SRI knowledge and practice, National Consortium on SRI (NCS) 2013 is given in the Box 2.1. The adoption of SRI in Kerala is gaining popularity in recent years.


Box 2.1

Transforming Rice Production with SRI (System of Rice Intensification) knowledge and practice, National Consortium on SRI (NCS) 2013


• SRI experiments across India show an increase in grain yield up to 68%. Results of evaluations in farmers’ fields showed yield advantages of 1.5 t ha -1 in Tamil Nadu, and 1.67 t ha-1 in Andhra Pradesh. On-farm evaluation in Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, showed a 29% increase in straw yield along with a 27.7% increase in grain yield.

• In conventional irrigated rice cultivation 3400 lit of water is required to produce 1 Kg rice, research findings on SRI water management suggested around 49.4% water saving in case of SRI.

• The nursery required for one ha under SRI management could be raised using just 5-7.5 kg

seed as against 20-30 kg ha-1 under conventional method. For conventional planting, farmers generally use high seed rates, up to 75 kg ha-1

• Experiments conducted in Kerala have shown that cono-weeding reduced the labour required for weeding by 35 man-days ha-1 and labour cost by Rs 3,125 ha-1.

• On-farm trials in the Tamiraparani river basin in 2003 showed that there was a 11% reduction in overall costs of cultivation. There was 86-165 % increase in net income is reported in various experiments

Source : Thiyagarajan, T.M and Bikhsm Gujja, 2013 Transforming Rice Production with SRI (System of Rice Intensification) knowledge and practice, National Consortium on SRI (NCS)



Crop Wise Analysis




2.18 The area under rice has been declining consistently over the last several years. After a long period of continuous decline, area under rice increased from 2.29 lakh ha in 2007-08 to 2.34 lakh ha in 2008-09 but it sharply declined by 20828 ha in 2010-11 period over to the previous year. During 2011-12, the area under rice declined by 5027 ha, but the production increased by 0.5 lakh MT. The upland rice development was implemented in 6539.06 ha and fallow land cultivation in another 731.7 ha. In 2012-13,there was a 5.2 per cent decline in area under rice while the production declined by 10.6 per cent. District wise analysis shows that all the major rice producing districts recorded a decline in area as well as production except Thrissur and Wayanad., the most prominent of them being that of Ernakulam which recorded a 49 per cent decline in area and 48 per cent decline in production. Details are given in Fig 2.4 and Appendix 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9.Inspite of focussed intervention through state plan and RKVY along with enhancing per hectare assistance from ` 1500 to ` 4500 in the 12th plan and introduction of procurement in all districts, rice production is not responding positively.


Fig 2.4

Percentage change in area and production of Rice in major districts of Kerala

During 2012-13 over 2011-12





2.19 Although one of its principal crops Kerala’s share in area as well as production of coconut in the country is declining over time While it accounted for 69.58 per cent of the area and 69.52 per cent of the production in the country in 1960-61, the corresponding shares declined to 40.2 per cent and 42.12 per cent respectively in 2011-12. . Area, production and productivity of coconut in Kerala as well as India are given in Appendix 2.10. A decline of 2.3 per cent was marked in the production of coconut in Kerala during 2012-13 over the previous year. The productivity of coconut in Kerala also declined slightly.


2.20 The main cause for falling productivity is the prevalence of root wilt disease, poor management and existence of senile and unproductive palms. Hence massive replanting of root wilt palms by elite palms and elimination of senile palms, setting up of nurseries for production of quality seedlings and their subsequent distribution is required for increasing productivity. Restructuring of the cluster development programme is also essential for more effectiveness. The isolated attempts of production of dwarf coconut seedlings and hybrids need to be scaled up substantially with the support of Research and Development institutions. Entrepreneurial ventures for the production of value added products like desiccated coconut, beverages, shell based products, coconut cream, neera etc. has to be promoted with appropriate tie up with credit and marketing agencies.The coconut procurement system through KrishiBhavans in association with Kerafed was introduced in 2012-13. The initiative taken by Govt. in promoting neera in 2013-14 is expected to revive coconut economy of the state.

2.21 A study was conducted by State Planning Board to analyse the process of implementation of the coconut rejuvenation and replanting scheme implemented in Oachira and Kottarakkara blocks of Kollam District. The salient findings of the study is abstracted in the Box 2.2. The findings of the study could be considered in restructuring the scheme while extending the scheme in the entire State in Twelfth Plan period.


Box 2.2

Replanting and Rejuvenation of Coconut gardens in Oachira and Kottarakkara Block Panchayats of Kollam District- An Analysis




• In release of cutting subsidy, both the GramaPanchayats could not meet the target and cutting subsidy was not distributed in equal proportion.

• More than 85 % of people in Oachira block and 60% of the people in Kottarakkara block are aware of the programme, its components and process of implementation.

• Under the programme, more disease affected palms are removed from coastal region (73 %) than the mid land region (66.6 %).

• Fifty per cent of replantation targeted by the scheme could not be achieved. 33.3% of
respondents in Oachira block and 73.3% in Kottarakara block received fertilizer in a period of 12 months only.

• Soil testing was not carried out properly before replanting.

• In Oachira Block only 50 % diseased palms and in Kottarakara block 16.67% diseased farms were removed.

• About 50 % of farmers did not show interest in fresh cultivation after removal of old and diseased palms. Only 43.33 % of respondents received seedlings for replanting.

• Rejuvenation programme was not properly carried out and time frame of implementation of scheme was not maintained.

• After removal of unproductive and old palms about 54 % respondents in Oachira block and 44 % in Kottarakarablock cultivated coconut in place of removed palms.

• Adequate training for scientific management of coconut cultivation was not provided as part of implementation of scheme in study area.


Source: Replanting and Rejuvenation of coconut gardens in Oachira and Kottarakkara Block Panchayats of Kollam District- An Analysis ,Evaluation Report, Kerala State Planning Board,September 2013.•




2.22 in Kerala, area under pepper cultivation has declined from 0.85 lakh ha in 2011-12 to 0.84 lakh ha in 2012-13. Meanwhile, there has been increase in production of 8797 MT. The methodology of estimation of area under pepper has been revised by the department of Economic & Statistics from 2011-12 resulting in a downward revision of area under pepper, which added to the higher level of productivity estimates of pepper.

2.23 Pepper prices have shown improvement in 2012 , with price realization increasing by Rs 98.89 per kg to reach ` 387.99 per kg. The price realization during 2013 (January-june) was Rs 370.24 per kg compared to ` 368.7 per kg during the corresponding period of 2012.


2.24 This stagnant nature of pepper production in recent years is mainly due to low productivity and disease affected pepper gardens. In order to revive spices development in the state, the department of Agriculture has initiated comprehensive pepper development in Wayanad, Malappuram, Kozhikode, Kannur and Kasargod districts. Spices Board is implementing a revival scheme in Idukki and Wayanad districts. However more co-ordination is essential to improve production of planting materials. An integrated action plan needs to be prepared for the revival of the crop in the State.




2.25 India continued to be the largest producer of raw cashew nuts in the world, with production of cashew nuts increasing from 6.92 lakh MT in 2011-12 to 7.28 lakh MT in 2012-13.The area under cashew cultivation declined from 9.91 lakh hectares to 9.82 lakh hectares in the respective years.


2.26 On the contrary in Kerala in the last one decade, there has been a continuous and considerable decline in both area under cultivation as well as production of cashew. Its alarming to note that the production which stood at 60 thousand MT in 2004-05 declined to 37.9 thousand MT in 2012-13. while area dwindled from 81 thousand hectares to 52 thousand hectares Productivity of the crop which was around 900 kg per hectare during the late eighties also dwindled to 730 kg per hectare.Details are given in Appendix 2.11


2.27 Area and production are increasing steadily in other producing states in the country. Eventhough the major share of area under cashew comes from Andhra Pradesh (19.5 per cent), Maharashtra is the leading producer with 32.2 per cent share in production during 2011-12, whose share was only 10 per cent in 1990-91. Kerala holds 4th position in this regard.




2.28 The production of natural rubber in the country was 9.14 lakh tones in 2012-13, marginally up by 10 thousand tonnes from 9.04 lakh tonnes produced in the previous year. The increase in production during 2012-13 , despite a fall in the average yield , was contributed by the expansion of yielding area to 504,000 hectares in during the year from 490,870 hectares in the previous year. The average yield, measured in terms of the production per hectare of yielding area , declined to 1813kg during the year from 1841 kg in the previous year due to adverse climate coupled with farmer’s short run responses to fall in prices. Low rubber prices often compel farmers to reduce frequency of tapping and application of inputs. The total consumption of natural rubber in 2012-13 was 9.72 lakhtonnes with a growth of 0.8 per cent as against 9.64 lakh tones during 2010-11. The import of Natural Rubber in the country upsurged to 2.17 lakh tones in 2012-13 from 2.14 lakh tones in 2011-12 while export of NR during 2012-13 declined to 30.5 thousand tones. Meanwhile in Kerala the production increased to 8 lakh MT and area to 5.45 lakh hectares. Details are given in Appendix 2.12, 1.3 and 2.14. The global Natural rubber production in 2012 was estimated at 113.3 lakh tonnes vis –a vis 111.1 lakh tonnes in the previous year. All the major producing countries except Malaysia reported increase in crop owing to better growing conditions and area expansion. The declining price of rubber is a cause of concern. A revival of rubber prices is expected consequent to the revision of import duty and other measures announced in 2013-14 by Government of India.




2.29 Domestic coffee production for the year 2012-13 was estimated at 315.5 thousand tonnes (post monsoon estimates) which represents an increase of 1.5 thousand tonnes compared to previous year. This meant that the domestic production for the second consecutive year has crossed the record highest. The area under coffee planting and bearing in India has shown an upward trend due to the expansion of cultivation in non-traditional areas. This suggests that the growth in production was on account of area increase rather than productivity increase. As per FAO estimates, yield in India is 837.8 kg per hectare much below Vietnam (2187.9kg per hectare) and Brazil (1256.7kg per hectare). Interestingly, a comparison of the productivity levels in 1971 vis –a vis 2011 suggests that India (-2.75) and Indonesia (-13.15) are the only two countries who have reported a decline in yield levels in last 40 years.


2.30 The area under coffee in Kerala was 0.84 lakh ha out of 4.09 lakh ha in the country during 2011-12, which works out to around 21 per cent. The percentage share of area under coffee is highest in Karnataka ( 56.1 per cent). The share of Kerala in production is around 22 per cent during 2011-12. Major variety grown in Kerala is Robusta with a share of 97.1 per cent in planted area. Production of coffee during the year was only 0.68 lakh MT against 3.14 lakh MT for the country. Productivity of the crop in terms of bearing area in Kerala is 808 kg/ha which is lower than the national level of 852 kg/ha during 2011-12. Even though the area under coffee registered a slight decline during the period, the production has recorded 3.8 per cent increase as against the previous year.Among the States, Kerala stands next to Karnataka which produces 70.4 per cent of total coffee production. 




2.31 As one of the largest tea producing countries, India accounts for 24.8 per cent of the total world production . In 2011, domestic production breached the one billion mark and was placed at 1126.3mkg in 2012-13. However North India accounted for majority of the increase as South India reported lower crop consequently for the fourth year.


2.32 Kerala accounts for 6 per cent of the area and 5.4 per cent of the total domestic production of tea in the country and it has been consistently falling for the last three years. There was some respite from this in 2012-13 as tea production recorded an increase of 5059 MT as compared to the previous year despite a decline in area of 18 per cent from the previous year. Details are given in Appendix 2.15.


2.33 The world tea production after crossing the crucial milestone of 4 billion kilo mark in 2010 has reached 4299.3 M Kgs in 2011, an increase of 129.1Mkgs (3.1 per cent) compared to the previous year. During 2012, the available information from major producing countries indicated that production was higher by 6.9 per cent. However a close look at the figures confirms that the production increase mainly came from China (17.6 per cent).


2.34 The latest trends in domestic prices during 2012 indicate buoyancy in price realization in both North India and South India. While South Indian price during January-December 2012 was higher by ` 17.22 per kg at ` 87.39 per kg , North India reported increase of ` 18.40 per kg to reach ` 135.59 per kg during January /December 2012.


2.35 The major issues plaguing the tea industry are stagnant productivity, acute labour shortage, high cost of machines, and lack of indigenous machinery




2.36 Cardamom production in the country during 2012-13 was estimated at 12.42 thousand tons compared to 15 thousand tonnes in 2011-12, a decline of 2.58 thousand tonnes. The improvement in cardamom prices since 2006-07 continued till 2010-11 but the price started falling since then and had reached ` 645.04 per kg during 2011-12. The increasing trend could not be sustained and price fell to ` 323.30 per kg in 2011-12. During the current season there was marginal improvement in price realization with prices increasing by ` 67.18 during 2012-13 to reach `703.03 per kg.


Plantation crops


2.37 Plantation crops in general are either export oriented or import substituting and therefore assume special significance from the national point of view. It is estimated that nearly 14 lakh families are dependent on the plantation sector for livelihood. Each of the four plantation crops of South India has its distinct characteristics and economic problems. Consequent to the removal of quantitative restrictions on import, plantation crops in general are facing the threat of low quality imports.


2.38 Kerala has a substantial share in the four plantation crops of rubber, tea, coffee and cardamom. These four crops together occupy 7.02 lakh ha, accounting for 34.4 per cent of the net cropped area in the
state. Kerala’s share in the national production of rubber is 87.3 per cent, cardamom 79 per cent, coffee 22 per cent and 7 per cent in tea during the year 2011-12. Details are given in Appendix 2.16.


Collective farming through Kudumbashree


2.39 Collective farming is an important area of Kudumbasree which aims at food security both at household and community level. The major crops cultivated are paddy, vegetables,banana, pineapple and tubers. Area brought under cultivation of paddy was 642.75 ha, vegetables contributed to 659.18 ha and 2219.5 ha of area was covered by other crops (banana, pineapple and tubers). Details of area covered are depicted in Appendix 2.19. More hand holding support including facilitation with banks and technology support are essential for improving livelihood of the women groups involved in farming.


Key initiatives of the Department of Agriculture in 2013-14


2.40 The key initiatives of the Department of Agriculture in 2013-14 for the improvement of agriculture sector are shown in Box 2.3. The E-Payment system was streamlined and farmer registration completed for 18.5 lakh farmers.In addition existing schemes and programmes like organic farming, high tech agriculture etc were streamlined and strengthened for better results.New components like grading of clusters , organization of clusters at block level, popularization of bio-control agents etc were introduced under Vegetable development initiative.Crop health management including launching of Post graduate diploma programme for plant health management, Publishing of Nutrient management plan for 500-Panchayats and establishment of seedling production units at centralized location and at block level as well as biogas plants in schools and ATMA plus model of extension are new initiatives. The new initiatives coupled with services notified under Service Delivery Act 2012 are expected to revitalize the agriculture sector of the State.


Crop Development Programme - Review of Annual Plan 2012-13


2.41 During the Annual plan 2012-13, as against an amount of ` 708.89crores earmarked for this sector, expenditure incurred was ` 661.9 crores (93 per cent)including CSS. For crophusbandry, an amount of ` 272.99 crores was allotted, out of which ` 231.7 crores was expended which constitutes 85 per cent of the total outlay. An amount of ` 49.08. crore was utilized for the development of rice in the State. The ultimate objective of rice development programme is to improve the production of rice and to attain the productivity of a minimum of 3 tonnes per ha by the end of the twelfth plan period. Major activities include group farming, upland cultivation ,promotion of speciality rice in six districts ie; Alapuzha, Ernakulam, Thrissur, Palakkad Wayanad and , Kannur,and fallow land cultivation under Kuttanad Package. 


2.42 For the development of vegetables, commercial vegetable cultivation was undertaken in 2940 ha by utilising an amount of ` 260 lakh. School gardens in 2400 schools, promotion of homsteads by distributing 20 lakh vegetable seed kits through students and 4 lakh seed kits via publication and media, promotion and establishment of urban clusters are the main activities. Under pepper development programme in Wayanad, an area of 3500 ha was covered for controlling pest diseases by utilizing ` 350 lakhs. For Coconut development ` 44.77 crores was utilized .For the production of TxD seedling 4.31 lakh coconut seedlings was procured. Under comprehensive coconut development programme 19600 hectares were covered and 784-clusters was formed to improve production.


Box 2.3

Key initiatives of the Department of Agriculture in 2013-14


• Completed farmer registration and 18.5 lakh farmers registered with the Krishi Bhavans upto November 2013.

• E- payment system streamlined

• Strengthened the functioning of 35 agro service centres

• Karshaka Karma Sena established in 200 Krishibhavans

• Hi tech agriculture focussing on polyhouse based vegetables and flower production and open farming initiated. Implementation is progressing with construction of 667polyhouses.

• 100 A grade clusters established in vegetable cevelopment and 20 federated organisations at block level for strengthening group activities, marketing and input support.

• ATMA Plus has been introduced for strengthening extension.

• Seedling production unit established through VFPCK.

• Mobility support provided to all blocks for service delivery.

• Strenghtened coconut procurement system through Krishibhavans.

• Revitalised the implementation of organic farming in Kasargod.

• Initiated setting up of Kuttanad Heritage Centre

• Nutrient management plan for 500 -panchayats published

• The scheme on Plant health management launched and a PG Diploma on plant health management was also launched for human resource development.

• Biogas plants established in schools to support vegetable initiative.

• Soil Health Management initiated in Wayanad on pilot basis.



 Horticulture Mission


2.43 Formed to implement the programme of the National Horticulture Mission the main objective of the mission is a holistic development of the horticulture sector covering fruits, plantations, spices , flowers, aromatic and medicinal plants and mushroom. The important schemes under the mission include production and productivity improvement, post harvest management, value addition and marketing.


2.44 A total amount of ` 4600 lakh was released during 2012-13 and the total expenditure was ` 4102.4 lakh including state share. The important activities include production and distribution of quality seeds and planting material, establishment of model nurseries, strengthening and rehabilitation of tissue culture units, extending the area under cultivation by bringing more areas under horticulture crops, rejuvenation and rehabilitation of senile plants, promotion of Integrated Nutrient Management and Pest Management programme, organic farming, pollination support through bee-keeping, mushroom unit for spawn and compost production, and horticulture mechanizations.


2.45 A project oriented monitoring system has to be evolved for realizing the envisaged outputs. A number of NGOs as well as private sector are also part of the project which needs further monitoring. More convergence of schemes with state plan and RKVY with deliverable are required for improved outputs.


Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council’s Programme


2.46 During the year 2012-13, 9664 farmers were inducted and 515 new SHG’s were formed for the promotion of fruits and vegetables, the number of registered farmers counting up to 164472 and number of SHGs to 8543. The council had initiated 10 new farmer markets and 19 collection centres during the financial year. 42 lakh High Yielding vegetable seedlings were produced and distributed throughout the state to promote homestead cultivation. In spite of this, area under vegetable cultivation declined from 25100 hectares to 22840 hectares and the production declined from 301200 MT to 175022 MT. The production of banana declined from 526320 to 265110 in 2012-13 and area under banana declined from 30960 ha to 23694 ha.


Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)


2.47 During 2009-10,an amount of ` 110.92 crores was released and fully utilized.During 2010-11 and 2011-12 ` 149.65 crores and ` 182.89crores were released and fully utilized.


2.48 An amount of ` 253.03crore was released during 2012-13 and ` 169.87 crore has been expended. The share of allocation for Kerala is very low compared to the budget provision for the country. A number of very small schemes are included for assistance under RKVY in the state like adoption of naturally ventilated green house technology , adoption of precision farming technology, establishment of mushroom cultivation units, popularization of temperate fruit crops in Idukki district, development of cool season vegetables in Kanthaloor and Vattavada, etc. More focused areas with larger projects have to be identified for support under RKVY. The preparation of district and state agriculture plans are a prerequisite for getting assistance for which concrete steps are required. Most of the documents prepared are a compilation of proposals for assistance under RKVY. The state 
Agricultural plan also has to be prepared for availing assistance under RKVY. More integrated approach is required for RKVY linkage with state plan. Details are given in Appendix 2.21


Support to State Extension Programme


2.49 Even though a convergence approach is envisaged in the scheme on extension reforms, more needs to be done to realize the objectives. The extension system needs a thorough restructuring. The total expenditure under ATMA during 2011-12 was ` 957.20 lakhs. The newly introduced lead farmer centered extension advisory and delivery service (LEADS) to be implemented under the ATMA frame work, with field visit on a regular basis in more districts after the evaluation of the pilot phase. All extension schemes components under ATMA Plus needs to be implemented in 12th Five Year Plan with more convergence of schemes under Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fisheries.


Crop Insurance Schemes


2.50 Around 20,000 farmers were insured under National Agricultural Insurance Scheme covering an area of 20,278 ha during 2012-13 Season.An amount of ` 54.17 Lakhs were paid as claims during 2012-13 and a claim of around ` 475 Lakhs has been approved for disbursement in respect of Rabi 2012-13 Season.Under weather based insurance scheme 28315 farmers were enrolled covering an area of 20482 ha. An amount of ` 338.49 Lakhs were allocated as Subsidy under the Scheme. Around ` 372 Lakhs were disbursed as claims under WBCIS during 2012-13 and ` 403.48 Lakhs during 2013-14. In 2012-13, 6845 farmers were insured under coconut palm insurance scheme covering an area of 2126.67 ha. Around ` 60.34Lakhs were disbursed as claims benefiting 1354 farmers. The Scheme provides compensation in the event of Total loss of coconut palms in the age category 4-60 yrs due to any of the insured perils which includes loss due to pest and disease. Rubber Plantation Insurance (RPI) is a policy of AIC for the benefit of Rubber growers. During 2012-13, 558 farmers and an area of 5901 ha were covered under the Scheme. Around ` 54 Lakhs were paid as compensation. Under Rainfall Insurance Scheme for Coffee during 2012 ` 16.33 Lakhs were paid as claims. During 2013-14, all the insurance schemes were integrated under a single scheme by Government of India.


Organic Farming


2.51 An area of 55.51 lakh ha has been brought under organic certification(including wild harvest) in India as on 2011-12. The four States occupying top position with respect to area under organic certification are Himachal Pradesh(9.33 lakh ha), Madhya Pradesh( 4.32 lakh ha), Chhttisgarh ( 3.00 lakh ha) and Maharashtra ( 2.45 lakh ha). During 2011-12, a quantity of 17345 MT of rice ( including basmati) has been produced under organic certification in the country and the production under conversion was 5329 MT. Quantity of fruits and vegetables under certification in the country was 7801 MT and that under tea and coffee were 5272 MT and 1139 MT respectively(Source : NCOF, Ministry of Agri Co Operation, GoI) .A number of 78932 farmers have been enrolled under Organic Farming Programme supported by State Horticulture Mission. Total Certified area in the state ( till June 2013) brought under State Horticulture Mission is 1888.57 ha and total area under organic farming is 10168.74 ha. Banana occupies highest area under organic farming in the state( 2697.93 ha). During 2012-13, 278 vermi compost units have been established under organic farming by the Mission and an area of 250 ha has been brought under organic certification (Source: State Horticulture Mission-Kerala).The department of Agriculture has initiated a comprehensive project on organic farming in Kasaragod district.


Expansion of High Tech Agriculture


2.52 The promotion of high tech agriculture covering protected agriculture and open precision farming was initiated in 2012-13 as part of vegetable development programme of the State. It is expected to construct about 548 polyhouses and 21 demonstration units in 2012-13 , Several biotic and abiotic stresses are the major factors responsible for low productivity and poor quality in large number of vegetable crops. Protected cultivation structures with partially modified environment are useful for combating both biotic and a biotic stresses that limit the productivity and quality of produce, and also for production throughout the year. The area under protected cultivation in the country is about 2000 ha at the end of 2011 while it is reported 20 lakh ha in China.The scheme has evoked good response from the farming community with large number of young farmers actively participating in the programme getting good returns from crops like salad cucumber, cow pea, and capsicum. The issues like marketing and technical support need to be addressed for the development of high tech farming in the state.
More details under this sector are shown in Appendix 2.3, 2.17, 2.18, 2.20, 2.22 and 2.23.




Livestock Development


2.53 In recent years, the livestock sector has emerged as an important source of rural employment and income of the farmers of the State. Driven by the structural changes in agriculture and food consumption pattern, the importance of livestock as a source of quality food has increased. The positive growth rate of agricultural GSDP during 2012-13 is reported due to the good performance of livestock sector.


Production of major livestock products


2.54 Total milk production in the state which was 24.20 lakh tonnes in 2003 declined to 21.11 lakh tonnes in 2004 and increased to reach 27.91 lakh tones in 2012-13. At the same time, over the period, at national level the milk production has been continuously increasing. Contribution of Kerala to national milk production which was 2.4 per cent during 2003-04 showed a declining trend and reached to 2.1 per cent during 2011-12. The growth rate of milk production in the state was 2.76 per cent in 2012-13.


Table 2.5

Average Annual Growth Rate of Milk Production (%)


Sl. No.


Kerala India

2002-03 to 2006-07(Xth Plan Period)




2007-08 to 2011-12(XI Plan Period)








2.55 India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world with a total production of 127.90 million tonnes in 2011-12. India’s contribution towards world milk production in 2010 was 16.2 per cent. During 2012-13 India’s milk production is estimated at132.43 million tones. Among the major states in India milk production is highest in Uttar Pradesh(225.56 lakh MT) followed by Rajasthan(135.12 lakh MT) and Andhra Pradesh (120.88 lakh MT). Kerala ranks 13th position with 27.16 lakh MT in 2011-12. Though India is the largest producer of milk in the world the per capita availability of milk is low compared to developed countries. Substantial increase in this regard was attained over a period of 10 years, from 225 gm/day to 281 gm/day.


2.56 In spite of India’s position as highest producer of milk, productivity per animal is very poor. At the national level it is only 987 Kg/lactation as compared to the world average of 2038 Kg/lactation. This is mainly due to poor level of nutrition as well as low genetic potential for milk production and health care. Among the major states in India, there are significant interstate differences in the productivity of cows and buffaloes. As per the available estimates milk yield/day of exotic cows were highest in Punjab(10.54 Kg), followed by Meghalaya (8.98 kg) Kerala(8.92 kg) and Chandigarh (8.60 kg). At the same time the yield/day of exotic breeds in Karnataka is 5.97 kg and Tamil Nadu is only 6.39 kg. The average yield/day of buffaloes is highest in Punjab (7.425 kg) followed by Kerala (6.242 kg), Tamil Nadu (4.222 kg) and Karnataka (2.481 kg). In general the milk yield of both cows and buffaloes were lowest in Assam.


2.57 Comprehensive dairy development projects need to be prepared to augment milk production in the state covering the potential milksheds. Integrated diary development projects also to be prepared for implementation under Idukki package, Wayanad and the potential districts with appropriate components on infrastructure development, technology and credit support. The recently approved World Bank aided National Dairy Plan is expected to provide significant financial and technical support for augment milk production in the state.


Milk Marketing


2.58 During 2012-13 a total of 4886 lakh litres of milk was procured by the DCS in the state of which 3079 lakh litres were sent to the dairies and 1768 lakhlitres were marketed locally by the societies. The procurement by the DCS is only about 15-16 per cent of the total estimated production. The average milk procured per day by APCOS during the year 2012-13 was875 MT against the previous year average of 787 MT. The procurement /day/society during 2012-13, 369litres and during 2011-12 it was 344litres. The MILMA Federation is importing milk from the neighboring states during lean periods when the internal supplies used to shrink. The procurement of milk by dairy under KCMMF stood at 3188.14 lakh litres against the sale of 4332.27 lakh litres during 2012-13 showing a wide gap between procurement and supply. Data on procurement and sale of milk by different dairies of KCMMF during 2007-08 to 2012-13 is given in Appendix 2.24 andperformance of KCMMF 2007-08 to 2012-13 are shown in Appendix 2.25 and average quantity of milk procured per day by APCOS are shown in Appendix 2.26.


2.59 The procurement and selling price of milk has been revised in Kerala w.e.f 14.10.2012. The average quality of milk procured in the state is 4.1 per cent fat and 8.3 per cent SNF and the procurement price paid for the same is ` 28.61 per litre and sales price for toned milk is ` 33 per litre. Price revision details of milk and price spread of milk from 2008 onwards is given in Appendix2.27 and Appendix 2.28 respectively.


Weak Feed and Fodder Base


2.60 Special focus has been given to fodder and feed production in Kerala to support the development of the livestock sector considering the wide gap in the availability of these two critical inputs. The new fodder varieties like CO3and other varieties from TNAUs have been introduced. During 2013-14 fodder production in Hi-tech mode also has been initiated. In order to augment supply of cattle feed two new plants at Kozhikode and Idukki have been initiated. The total production of cattle feed during 2012-13 was 3.05 lakh metric tone indicating almost stagnant level of production over 2011-12 for 3.03 lakh MT. The production of feed and fodder are shown in Appendix 2.29, Appendix 2.30 and Appendix 2.31.


Breeding Support


2.61 Kerala Livestock Development Board (KLDB) is involved in the production and distribution of frozen semen. Compared to 2011-12, semen production increased from 24.05 lakh doses to 28.40 lakh doses during 2012-13. The distribution inside and outside the State increased from 17.60 lakh doses to 17.67 lakh doses and from 5.28 lakh doses to 10.49 lakh doses respectively during this period. Details are shown in Appendix 2.32.


2.62 The number of AI centres in the state as on 31-03-2013 was 2979. The number of inseminations done during 2012-13 was 12.90 lakh and calving recorded was 3.57 lakh. This is against 4.13 lakh calving recorded out of 14.85 lakh AI during 2011-12. The average number of inseminations needed for producing one calf is 3.59 (see Appendix 2.33). The quality of AI is not improving and so measures to improve the quality of semen supplied to be taken up immediately. Activities of the Board are given in Appendix 2.34.


Special Livestock Breeding Programme (SLBP)


2.63 The calf rearing programme by subsidizing cattle feed for rearing cattle up to 32 months along with health cover and insurance has been under implementation since 1976 onwards. During 2006-07 the scheme was extended to buffalo calves also as a measure to curtail the drastic reduction in the buffalo population. During 2012-13, 74371 calves were enrolled as against 12947 calves in 2011-12. Year wise details from 2003-04 onwards are shown in Appendix 2.35


Egg and Meat


2.64 The gap between the production and requirement of egg is increasing at an alarming rate. Concerted efforts of the State to increase the egg production have begun to show signs of improvement. Poultry farming for egg production with purchased feed are uneconomic in Kerala. Poultry rearing on commercial lines is therefore largely confined to broiler production. The egg production which was 2054 million in 1999-2000 continuously declined till 2005-06, but began to increase in 2006-07 and that trend maintained in succeeding years. Compared to previous year egg production increased to1705 million numbers during 2011-12.


2.65 Though meat production is increasing over the years, it cannot cater to the demand fully. Poultry meat production decreased from 184000tonnes in 2011-12 to 128842tonnes in 2012-13. The major reason for the decrease was due to the ban of the poultry birds entering the State from neighboring States due to the outbreak of bird flu in Karnataka. The meat production other than poultry meat increased from 242000tonnes in 2011-12 to 272152tonnes in 2012-13 registering an increase of 12.46 per cent over the previous year. The per capita availability of meat per day in Kerala during 2012-13 was 32.89gms (Poultry meat 10.57grm and meat other than poultry meat 22.32grms). Kerala has not exploited the potential of meat production. Regional projects with appropriate buy back arrangement have to be prepared for the improvement of meat production in the state.


Animal Health Care


2.66 With the improvement in the quality of livestock through cross breeding programmes, the succeptibility of various diseases including exotic diseases has incurred. Better health care facilities are provided through a network of 27562 polyclinics/hospitals/dispensaries, 25195 veterinary aid centres supported by about 250 disease diagnostic laboratories are functioning in the country. For the production of vaccines, there are 27 veterinary vaccine production units. The primary emphasis is on clinical services and as a result, endemic diseases such as Foot and Mouth Diseases (FMD) are still prevalent. With increased trade activity and extensive cross-breeding programmes, the chances of ingress of exotic diseases into the country have increased.


2.67 The state is implementing a programme for Foot and Mouth disease control with the assistance of Government of India. Also Brucellosis has now emerged as a new threat to the livestock wealth ofthe State. Helminthiasis control also needs attention. Worms and other internal parasites cause considerable economic loss to the farmers. Data regarding outbreaks, attacks and deaths of major contagious diseases of animals in Kerala for the period from 2007-08 to 2012-13 are given in Appendix 2.36


2.68 Even though vaccinations were carried out, frequent outbreaks were reported which lead to production loss to farmers. Further strengthening of the laboratories under the sector needs to the taken up on priority basis from the improvement of diagnostic and testing facilities.


2.69 The reports of minor attacks of major diseases like Anthrax, and Hemorrhagic Septicemia are also reported and are more in numbers compared to previous years. 14 deaths due to antrax and 46 of Hemorrhagic Septicemia reported during 2012-13. The State has already eradicated the dreadful disease of rinderpest and no outbreak was reported after 1994. Outbreak of black quarter also not reported during 2012-13.


Production of Vaccine in Veterinary Biological Institute, Palode


2.70 The Veterinary Biologicals, Palode is the sole agency engaged in the production and distri-bution of animal vaccine in the state. The production details of vaccines manufactured here are shown in Appendix 2.37. Compared to previous year poultry vaccine production during 2012-13 was 260.95 lakh doses as against 189.08 lakh doses during 2011-12 and production of livestock vaccine decreased by 41 per cent from4.56 lakh doses during 2011-12 to 2.67 lakh doses. Number of vaccinations done during 2012-13 was 30.25 lakh Nos for livestock and 109.45 lakh Nos for poultry. Compared to previous year, vaccination to cattle increased by 80 per cent and vaccination to poultry increased by 7.1 per cent. Anti Rabies Vaccinations done in dogs decreased from 1.68 lakh to 1.43 lakh during the year under report. Details are given in Appendix 2.38




2.71 Average price of important inputs and products of livestock sector for the last five years is presented in Appendix 2.39 and almost all the products recorded increase in prices during the period. Compared to 2011-12 there was increase in the price of all categories of meat during 2011-12. During 2012-13, the highest increase was in the case of Mutton (23 per cent), followed by pork (17.84 per cent). Compared to 2011-12, the price of fowl-white egg increased by 17.72 per cent, brown egg by 11.84 per cent and duck egg by 19.53 per cent during 2012-13. Corresponding increase during the previous year was 4.2 per cent 8.8 per cent and 6.2 per cent respectively.


2.72 On the input side, the price of grass recorded 105 per cent increase during 2012-13. Compared to previous year, the price of gingely oil cake increased by 28.1 per cent, coconut oil cake by 9.18 per cent, straw by 12.75 per cent, ground nut cake by 26.47 per cent during 2012-13 and the increase in the price of inputs is a serious threat to dairy farming. The trend in average prices of livestock products from 2007-08 to 2012-13 are shown in Fig 2.5.


Fig 2.5

Trend in Average Prices of Livestock Products from 2007-08 to 2012-13


Meat Egg

39346.png 39340.png



Milk Feeds


 39334.png 39328.png


Annual Plan 2012-13


2.73 Annual Plan 2012-13 earmarked outlay of ` 211.17 crore and ` 35 crore respectively for Animal Husbandry and Diary Development sector and expended ` 183.41 crore (86.85 per cent) and ` 35.27 crore (100.77 per cent). Special Livestock Breeding Programme (SLBP) and Backyard Poultry Development Project were two major projects implemented with outlay of ` 25 crores and ` 10.42 crore respectively and ` 24.90 crore (99.61per cent) and `10.42 crore (100 per cent) were expended. Under dairy development, milkshed development and fodder development are the major schemes with expenditure of ` 13crore (100 per cent) and ` 4.70 core (94 per cent) respectively.


Key initiatives in 2013-14


2.74 The key initiatives of Animal Husbandry Department and Dairy Department are 2013-14 are the expansion of special Livestock breeding programme to cover 75000 calves, introduction of emergency veterinary services in 20 blocks for 24 hours, door step services of farmers, establishment of two new cattle feed plants, expansion of production of young ones of cattle and goats, strengthening of dairy cooperative societies and introduction of high tech fodder production units.




Fisheries Development


2.75 As per the population census 2011, the fisher folk population in Kerala is 10.02 lakh covering 7.71 lakh in coastal area and 2.31 lakh in inland sector. It is also estimated that about 74100 people are engaged in fishery – allied activities. This fishermen of the state contribute about 9 per cent of the GSDP from the agriculture sector which gives the significance of the sector to the state economy. The total fishermen population in Alappuzha district is 1.68 lakh which is the highest fishermen populated district, followed by Thiruvananthapuram (1.65 lakh) and Ernakulam (1.33 lakh). The district wise details of fisherfolk population are given in Appendix 2.40. The Gross State Domestic Product of the State has increased by about 69 per cent during the period from 2005-06 to 2012-13 and the share of fisheries sector in the State Domestic Product has declined from 1.3 to 0.82 per cent in the same period. The share of Primary Sector in GSDP has also declined from 17.1 to 9.3 per cent. The contribution of fisheries sector in GSDP is given in Appendix 2.41


2.76 Marine fish landings of India during the year 2012 has provisionally been estimated as 3.32 million tones with a decrease of about 0.05 million tonnes compared to the estimate for the last year. Among the states Gujarat was the highest contributor of Marine fish production followed by Kerala. In total fish production Andhra Pradesh was the highest contributor and Kerala stands 4th position. During 2012-13, 5.31 lakh tonnes of marine fish were landed in Kerala showing a decline of 0.22 lakh tonnes (4.14 per cent) over the previous year. The high value species among the fish catches are still few, prominent among them are Seer fish, Prawn, Ribbon fish and Mackerel. The quality of these high value species in the total catch ultimately decides the income of the fishermen. The species wise marine fish landings in Kerala from 2008-09 to 2012-13 are shown in Appendix 2.42.


2.77 India has been a major contributor to the world marine fish production and second largest producer of inland fish. The south west comprising Kerala, Karnataka and Goa were the top contributors among regions. Presently fisheries and aquaculture contribute 0.78 per cent to the national GDP and 4.47 per cent to agriculture and allied activities. Fisheries sector contributes significantly to the national economy while providing livelihood to approximately 14.49 million people in the country. It has been recognized as a powerful income and employment generator as it stimulates growth of a number of subsidiary industries and is a source of cheap and nutritious food besides being a source of foreign exchange earner. Fishery being one of the promising sectors of agriculture and allied activities in India.


Trend in Production


2.78 Estimates of the fishery resources assessment shows that among the maritime states in India, Kerala occupies the second position in marine fish production. The total fish production in Kerala during 2012-13 was 6.8 lakh tonnes. The marine fishery resources of the state has almost attained the optimum level of production. At national level more than 60 per cent of the total fish production is contributed by the inland sector. Government have approved a master plan for increasing the inland fish production of the state from the current level of 75000 tonnes to 2 lakh tonnes over a period of 10 years. The current level of Inland fish production is to the quantum of about 1.49 lakh tones, an increase of 6 per cent of the previous year. The species-wise inland fish production in Kerala from 2008-09 to 2012-13 are shown in Appendix 2.43.


2.79 Indian marine fisheries is also passing through a crisis due to its over capacity and open access nature. During 2012-13, India’s total fish production was 9.04 million tonnes of which 3.32 million tonnes was from marine sector and 5.72 million tonnes was from Inland sector (Fig 2.6).


Fig 2.6

Marine and Inland Fish Production All India (2012-13)Marine and

Inland Fish Production Kerala (2012-13)


Marine and Inland  Fish Production All India (2012-13)





Marine and Inland Fish Production Kerala (2012-13)




2.80 The marine fish production in Kerala tended to fluctuate while the inland fish production showed a sign of improvement from 1999-2000. During 2012-13, the marine fish production has declined to 5.31 lakh tonnes from 5.53 lakh tonnes of 2011-12. Inland production sustained on  increasing trend. During 2012-13, the share of inland fish production to the total fish production of the state was 22 per cent. The details of fish production for the last 5 years are given in Appendix 2.44 and Fig 2.7.


Fig 2.7

Fish Production in Kerala (2008-09 to 2012-13) in lakh tonnes



2.81 To improve fish production in Inland water bodies, a comprehensive programme need to be chalked out. It is possible through by utilizing all available resources augmenting the aquaculture production and productivity through diversification and intensive aquaculture practices, ensuring conservation and management of aquatic resources through responsible and participatory approaches. Reservoirs are the most important and promising fresh water resources for fish culture in Kerala. The potential resources of back waters estuaries and river systems are to be suitably utilized for the enhancement of fish production of the State. Strengthening of hatcheries and seed farms are essential at this point. But the production from the Government hatcheries is far below their installed capacity and many of these have not met with their targeted production and maintain quality of their produce. The State Government hatcheries need to be strengthened to have sustainable level of output to meet the projected demands for seeds. The ornamental fish industry is a much promising sector in the inland fisheries. The export potential of the ornamental fisheries may also be suitably utilized for making more income. The programme could be envisaged as an alternative livelihood venture to the fishermen and marginal farmers.


2.82 The Key elements of the 12th plan Approach paper in the fisheries sector are launching of a comprehensive coastal area development project covering infrastructure, housing, sanitation, drinking water and livelihood, action plans for augmenting inland fish production to 2 lakh tones by the end of the plan from 1.17 lakh tones, enhancement of seed production, strengthening of post harvest infrastructure like better fish landing and handling facilities, cold chains, storage facilities as well as marketing facilities for the development of the sector and improvement in the production of value added products, micro enterprises, credit support and coverage under social security. Accordingly the first year plan programme of the XIIth five year plan was completed in 2012-13.


Performance Review under XIth Plan & Annual Plan 2012-13


2.83 The total approved outlay during the 11th plan under the fisheries sector was `255.25 crore which accounts 0.6 per cent of the total state plan outlay and 11 per cent of the outlay under Agriculture & Allied Sectors. But the actual amount budgeted during the plan period was ` 380 crore and the expenditure was ` 437.21 crore (115 per cent). In addition to this an amount of ` 55.89 crore was setapart for Integrated Coastal Development Scheme under Special Area Development Programme and the expenditure incurred was ` 40crore (71.64per cent). The total expenditure under state plan schemes during 2012-13 was ` 213.03 crore which accounts 187.09 per cent of the state plan outlay. There are 10 partially aided central sector schemes having an outlay of ` 52.71crore and the expenditure during this period was ` 40.36crore. The outlay and expenditure for various schemes implemented in the fisheries sub sector during 2012-13are given in Appendix 2.46


Key Initiatives during 2013-14


2.84 Key Initiatives of the department during 2013-14 are safe house to 2850 number of fishermen families, address the issue of drinking water facility, electrification, sanitation, livelihood opportunity and library support to 20 fishing villages, modernization of 10 fish markets with the assistance of NFDB, establish 2500 individual sanitary latrines to fishermen. Construction of 4 Fishing Harbours under 75 per cent CSS vizVellayil, Thannoor, Arthungal and Manjeswaram.


Debt Relief to Fishermen


2.85 It has been estimated that fisherman have a debt liability of ` 524 crore. During the period 2008-09 to 2011-12, an amount of ` 36 crore was provided with budget for debt relief measures to fishermen and as on 31.03.2012, ` 35.69 crore has been released for this programme.


Major Developmental Programmes


2.86 Government have initiated the new project Matsyakeralam during 2008-09. From 2009-10 to 2011-12, the total amount budgeted for this scheme was ` 5.50 crore as state share and the provision was fully utilised for the scheme. The total project cost estimated as ` 71.16crore. The achievement of the project during the first phase shows an encouraging result especially in shrimp and mussel farming. Under the MastyaSamarudhi Project 2068tonnes Shrimp, 1720 tonnes Mussel and 80 tonnes of Karimeen were produced by the 1st phase of the scheme. During 2012-13, a new scheme viz., model fishing villages was envisaged in the budget with an outlay of ` 50 crore under state plan for the development of 25 fishing villages @ ` 2 crore per village. More pro active steps in the implementation of the coastal area development project is required since the progress is quite slow.

2.87 During 2012-13 an amount of ` 200 lakh were expended for the implementation of one paddy one fish in kuttanad and kole lands for covered an area of 1446 ha in kuttanadu and kole lands. About 103 tons of scampi and 750 tons of fish were produced during 2012-13 and a revenue collection of ` 656 lakh was achieved. The project sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture aims at the development of 2500 ha of Pokkali fields of Ernakulam, Thrissur and Alappuzha districts during the Xth plan period. During 2012-13 an area of 63 ha was brought under culture and an amount of ` 100 lakh was provided for the scheme. 35 tons of Shrimp worth ` 86 lakh was produced during the period.


Fishing Harbour


2.88 The Government of Kerala has so far implemented 9 fishing harbour and the works of other 8 harbours are in progressing. The completed fishing harbours are Thangassery, Neendakara, Kayamkulam, Munambam, Beypore, Puthiyappa, Chombal,Moplabay, Azheekal and Ponnani. The fishing harbours now supported are Koyilandi, Thalai, Cheruvathoor, Chettuvai, Muthalapozhi and Chethi. The works of Thalai, Koyilandi and Chettuvai fishing harbours were completed soon. The construction of Muthalapozhi fishing harbour now supported under RKVY is lagging. The project was approved in 2000 at a cost of ` 13.66 crore with total expenditure till 2012-13 was ` 13.52 crore. During 2012-13, ` 36.80 crore including central share were allotted for the construction of fishing harbours for which ` 24.65 crore was expended. An amount of ` 11.11 crore was expended during the year through RIDF. Time bound completion schedules for all ongoing harbours need to be worked out. Status of the progress of ongoing fishing harbours is shown in Appendix 2.47


2.89 Total revenue collected from the completed fishing harbours and fish landing centres during 2011-12 and 2012-13 were ` 416.04 lakh and ` 434.94 lakh respectively. Revenue collection from Neendakara fishing harbour during 2011-12 and 2012-13 were ` 115.54 lakh and ` 185.91 lakh, which accounts 60 per cent increase over the previous year. During 2012-13 the highest revenue collection was from Neendakara harbour which accounts 43 per cent of the total revenue collection. Puthiyappa fishing harbour contributed 18 per cent of the total revenue collection during 2012-13 which accounts 54 per cent decrease in the revenue collection for the previous year. The details are given in Appendix 2.48.


2.90 Under RIDF XI, NABARD has approved two projects viz balance work of Kayamkulam fishing harbour and modernisation of Neendakara fishing harbour and sanctioned a loan amount of ` 1062.54 lakh and ` 895 lakh respectively and the cumulative expenditure as on 31.3.2013 was `1266 lakh and ` 886 lakh respectively. Under RIDF XIII, NABARD has sanctioned a loan of ` 1026.43 lakh for the construction of fishing harbour at Thalai. The expenditure upto March 2013 was `1025.19 lakh. Prioritised action plan has to be prepared for the completion of all ongoing and pending infrastructure projects. Expansion of more harbours to be based on need and technical studies.


Social Security and livelihood support to Fishermen Community


2.91 The major highlights of social security schemes are given in Appendix 2.49 to 2.50. During 2012-13, 800 number of houses were completed including spillover from 2011-12 and the expenditure incurred was ` 1600 lakh. The saving cum relief schemes provided assistance to about 185000 beneficiaries at an amount of ` 1076 lakh and interest free loan to 24740 beneficiaries for an amount of ` 2609 lakh.




2.92 Matsyafed is an apex federation of 666 primary level Fishermen Development Welfare Co-operative Societies, of which 343 numbers are in marine sector, 198 are in inland sector and 125 women co-operative societies. The total membership in these societies is 3.81 lakh. The paid up share capital of the federation is ` 150 crore. Matsyafed have organised more than 15770 SHGs with 192083 members. The groups have mobilized ` 6423 lakh as thrift. The achievement of various programmes implemented by Matsyafed is given in Appendix 2.51.

2.93 In the last five year plan, marine fisheries sector has achieved better growth in its infrastructure development. The 12th plan strategy is to ensure sustainable growth of Fish and Fisheries for nutrition, food security and economic growth by ensuring proper utilization of infrastructure created in the last plan. Special emphasis has to be given to conservation and management of inshore fishery resources, enhancement of offshore marine fish production and maximum utilization of harvested fish and its value addition. The major issues in the sector are price exploitation of selected stock, ineffective regulation, ever increasing fleet size, lack of responsible fishing practices etc. The marine environment has to be revitalized with the introduction of artificial reef to enhance its productivity. Maximum utilization of harvested resources can be ensured for its proper storage, transportation and distribution. Effective preservation of fish quality as per international standard, promote export as well as domestic marketing legislation is needed for the assurance of hygiene and quality in domestic fish marketing. The hygiene condition of the harbours need to be modernized by integrated harbor management societies may be constituted for each harbor. Regarding social infrastructure, provision for safe shelter and drinking water, improvement of public health and education facilities, total sanitation and solid waste management etc. needs special care and attention. Focussed attention for the implementation of coastal area development project including livelihood security is urgently required. More details under this sector is shown in Appendix 2.45.





Water Resources


2.94 At the national level during Twelfth Five Year Plan, it has been targeted to improve the
efficiency of irrigation projects by at least 20 per cent from the existing level of 30 per cent. Irrigation development should be given more priority for the completion of medium irrigation projects and to utilize the created potential for the cash crops of the State. Rice is the major crop benefited through irrigation infrastructure in the State. Even in the case of this crop, the incremental yield, which the irrigation support could bring, is not significant. With the fast changes taking place in the farm front of Kerala with notable reduction in the area under rice cultivation, even the distribution systems already developed for gravity irrigation to service rice cultivation now require realignment. Investments in
irrigation are changing globally in response to changes in environment and experience with previous
projects. Increased water scarcity has shifted the focus from exploitation of water resources and building infrastructure to improvement of water use efficiency. The source development along with area wide micro irrigation systems is an option for the state in most of the agro-ecological zones.


Live Storage Capacities of Irrigation Reservoirs


2.95 The surface irrigation constitute major chunk of irrigation infrastructure in the state. There are 18 dams in the state intended for irrigation. Out of this, 14 have storages and remaining are barrages.The live storage position of the reservoirs during the beginning and end of the monsoon period during 2011 to 2013 are given in Appendix 2.52. In the beginning of the Monsoon in 2013 the total storage was 280.59 Mm3 and at the end of the monsoon, the level was 1290.25 Mm3, against the levels of 403.69 Mm3 and 744 Mm3 respectively, during the previous year. The increase in storage is due to about 50 per cent increase of rain fall during 2013 compared to the previous year.


Fig 2.8

Live storage position in the Reservoirs (2011, 2012 & 2013)




Fig 2.9

Live storage position in the Reservoirs (Average for 10 years): 2011,2012,& 2013




Review of Major Projects


2.96 The overall performance of the major and medium irrigation sector during the initial years was not encouraging. The cumulative area brought under irrigation through major and medium irrigation projects is 32044 hectares (gross). The details of the progress of implementation of ongoing projects as on October 2013 are given in Appendix 2.53.Time and cost overruns have been a major cause of concern for medium projects in the state.


Karapuzha Irrigation Project


2.97 Karapuzha Project is the first project for irrigation taken up in the Wayanad District of Kerala to create a reservior of 76.50 Mm3 storage capacities. The original estimate of the project was 
` 7.60 crore in 1976 and the revised estimate as per 2010 schedule of rates was ` 441.50 crore. The cumulative expenditure incurred upto October 2013 is ` 294.69 crore. The project has been partially
commissioned on 20.6.2010 and an ayacut area of 938 ha has been achieved so far. Major
components under head works and the works of 8.805 Km right and 16.59 Km left bank canals are also completed. Land acquisition in respect of distributaries of Left and Right Bank Canals are yet to be completed. The progress of implementation of the project is very slow. More proactive steps are required to complete the project in the drought affected district. The project has been included under AIBP but the implementation of the work plan is very slow. Prioritization of work to complete the ongoing work is also required.


Muvattupuzha Valley Irrigation Project


2.98 The project envisages the utilisation of the tailrace water from the Idukki Hydro electric project and is intended to give irrigation facilities to 19237 ha.(net) and 37737 ha.(gross) in Ernakulam, Kottayam and Idukki districts. MVIP was started in 1974 with an estimated cost of ` 20.86 crore.The estimated cost of the project as per 1980 Schedule of Rates was ` 48.08 crores and the revised estimate cost, which is under finalization. The expenditure as on Ocober 2013 is ` 855.40crores. The work of the dam, Left (37.1km) and Right (28.337km) bank main canals are completed. Out of the total length of 57.154 km of branch canal the work of 54.237km have been completed. For distributaries,out of the total length of 217.997 km, 182.077 km have been completed so far. The project was commissioned partly in November 2004, and the ayacut area created so far is 31106 ha gross. The project has to be closed at a convenient stage for the optimum utlisation of resources invested considering the implementation of the project for more than three decades. The cropping pattern in the ayacut has changed and additional investment is required to irrigate the crops.


Idamalayar Irrigation Project


2.99 The Idamalayar Irrigation Project is a diversion scheme intended to irrigate an extend of 14394 ha. of wet and dry lands and the Cultivable Command Area (C.C.A.) is 13209 ha. The latest estimate of the project being prepared as per 2012 SOR is ` 750crores and the cumulative expenditure as on October 2013 is ` 381.24crores.


2.100 The works of 98.14per cent of main canal, 45.02 per cent of low level canal, 36.85 per cent of link canal and 96.72 per cent of RBMC have been completed so far. In view of the Government policy to complete the long pending projects, the execution of the works needs to be arranged to the project at an early phase of the plan period so as to close the project in the XIIth five year plan itself.


Banasurasagar Irrigation Project


2.101 The project was commenced in 1971 with an estimated cost of ` 8 crore to irrigate an area of 2800 ha. agriculture land for the second and third crops. The project report was revised based on 1996 SoR and Administrative Sanction was given to a cost of ` 37.88 crores. The revised estimate of the project based on 2010 SoR is ` 185.5 crores. The work of the Main canal of length 2.73 Km is completed except from Ch.1130 M to 1500 M. The land acquisition process of distributaries is in progress. Expenditure incurred up to October 2013 is ` 44.61crore.


Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)


2.102 The release of central assistance to Kerala under AIBP is very low compared to other states. The details of release of central assistance under AIBP to Kerala with respect to other states are shown in the Appendix 2.54. The total central assistance released by Govt. of India for the 28 states from 1996-97 to 2012-13 is ` 60254.82 crore.The central assistance received for Kerala from 1996-97 to 2012-13 is ` 179.27 crore which accounts only 0.30 per cent of the total release of Govt. of India to all states. There has been a decreasing trend in the utilization during the last few years and release was received only up to 2010-11 and no release was reported thereafter. The total central 
assistance received under AIBP under PM’s package is ` 13.64 crore for the projects Karapuzha ( ` 2.72 crore), Kanhirapuzha-ERM ( ` 5.07 crore) and Chitturpuzha ( ` 5.85 crore). The total central assistance received for Muvattupuzha project is ` 133.14 crore and the assistance was received up to 2009-10. The Kallada irrigation project is the only major/medium irrigation project completed under AIBP in Kerala which included in AIBP during 1996-97 and completed in 2004-05 and the central release was ` 32.50 crore. More focused attention is required for the implementation of AIBP assistance projects in Kerala and for tapping up of more central assistance as per the revised guidelines. Separate proposals could be prepared for the development of minor irrigation under AIBP.


Kuttanad Package


2.103 The total outlay of the Kuttanad Package as per MSSRF report is ` 1840.40 crore. Out of this ` 1518.59 crore is set apart for the Irrigation sector ( 82.5 per cent). The total project sanctioned under
the irrigation sector is ` 1849.31 crore. The Central share released for the project is ` 88.40 crore and State share released so far is ` 64.31crore. Of the total state share of ` 64.31 crore,an amount of ` 43.08 crore was released as additional state share and ` 21.23 crore was released as 25 per cent state share. The total amount utilized so far for the project is ` 106.64 crore. The percentage
of expenditure based on the released amount is 69.84 per cent.The time bound completion of the project is required to avail maximum assistance from Government of India and to develop the Kuttanad wetland ecosystem.


Box 2.4

Revised Guidelines of Water Resources Schemes for 12th Five Year Plan


• Scheme on Repair, Renovation and Restoration (RRR) of water bodies

Under the scheme GoI targeted 10000 water bodies having a Cultural Command Area (CCA) of 6.235 lakh hectare at a cost of Rs 10000 crore during XII Plan. For non-special category states/areas the central assistance is 25% of the project. Project with an individual water body with sub basin approach and all public and community owned water bodies are covered under the scheme with a unique code number for water body. Water bodies having
minimum water spread area of 5 hectare in rural areas and water spread area from 2 hectare to 10 hectare in urban areas are eligible under the scheme.

• Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme(AIBP)

1. Ongoing Major and Medium Projects: Major and Medium Projects having investment clearance
of Planning Commission and are in advanced stages of construction and can be completed in the next four financial years can be considered for inclusion in the scheme.

2. Extension/Renovation and Modernisation Projects(ERM): The Major/Medium ERM projects having investment clearance of Planning Commission and projects already completed and commissioned at least 10 years earlier from the proposed year of inclusion in AIBP are eligible.

3. Surface Minor Irrigation Scheme: For non special category states, the individual surface minor irrigation schemes having CCA of 20 hectare and cluster of MI schemes within the radius of 5 km having total CCA of 50 hectare benefitting tribal areas, drought prone areas, desert prone areas and left wing extremists affected areas will be eligible for assistance under AIBP.

• Flood Management Programme

A state sector scheme under Central Plan to provide central assistance amounting to 
Rs 10000 crore during XII Plan period for taking works related to river management ,flood control, anti-erosion, drainage development, flood proofing, restoration of damaged flood management works, anti-sea erosion and catchment area treatment etc.

• Flood management works in an integrated manner covering entire river/tributary or a major
segment is suggested. For general non special category states the funding pattern is 50(Centre):50(State).The flood management programmes costing Rs 40 crore and above having BC Ratio more than 1.0 is eligible.

Source: Source :Ministry of Water Resources .Government of India, 2013




Irrigation Status


2.104 The source-wise area irrigated as on March 2013 is given in Appendix 2.55 and 2.56. As per the assessment of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics the net irrigated area in the state as on March 2013, is 3.96 lakh ha. and the gross area irrigated is 4.58 lakh ha. There is a decrease of 3.2 per cent in the net irrigated area of the state in compared to the previous year of 2011-12. Gross irrigated area also decreased 6.7 per cent during the period. Gross irrigated area to Gross Cropped Area in the period is 17.67 per cent. During 2012-13, among the crops, coconut tops among the major crop supported by irrigation. It accounted for about 36 per cent followed by paddy 32 per cent, banana 10 per cent, arecanut 8 per cent and vegetable 4 per cent.Details are given in Appendix 2.57 and 2.58. There has been a good progress in irrigated area under vegetable cultivation during the year and also an increase in the area under irrigation for banana cultivation compared to the previous year.


Minor Irrigation


2.105 Minor irrigation is considered to have an important role to play in states like Kerala, where the average farm size is small. A master plan needs to be prepared for development of minor irrigation
in the state. A survey has already been completed on tanks and ponds in Palakkad district and action is initiated for preparation of DPR on restoration of tanks and ponds in the State. As a first step DPR preparation is in progress for Palakkad district. Minor irrigation has been given a considerable thrust during the Annual Plan 2012-13 and the same accounted nearly 21.40 per cent of the total budgeted outlay of the irrigation sector. The details of physical achievement for 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13 are shown in Appendix 2.59. NABARD has been providing loan assistance for irrigation works through RIDF phase I to XVIII since 1995-96 and so far 1229 works has been completed. The assistance of NABARD is by way of reimbursement. RIDF I to XI have been closed and the works under RIDF XIII to XVIII are in progress. Details are given in Appendix 2.60.


Ground Water Development


2.106 Ground water fulfils the irrigation needs of around 50 per cent of irrigated area. The total
annual ground water availability in Kerala State has been computed as 6.620 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) and the net ground water availability in the entire state is 6.029 BCM. The rainfall recharge accounts for about 82 per cent of the annual recharge. The annual ground water draft for all uses in the state is 2.809BCM. The net Ground water availability for future irrigation development in the state as in 2009 is of the order of 3.021 BCM. The overall stage of development of the State is 47 per cent. The districtwise stage of development is maximum in Kasaragod (71 per cent) and minimum in Wayanad district (17 per cent). Details are given in Appendix 2.61.


2.107 The net annual ground water availability for the state of Kerala during 2009 has reduced to 3.22 per cent compared with the data during 2004. The annual ground water draft for all uses has reduced by 3.80 per cent during the period. The net ground water availability for future irrigation development in the state as a whole shows a decline of 1.74 per cent in 2009 compared to 2004.


2.108 The expenditure incurred during the period 2012-13 for the implementation of ground water development schemes was ` 19.83crores against the budget outlay of `12.52crores. The detailed physical achievement during the year under report is given in Appendix 2.62.


Performance of Irrigation sector during 2012-13


2.109 During the Annual Plan period 2012-13, an expenditure of `52.75crore was incurred for
Major and Medium irrigation, ` 75.06 crore for Minor Irrigation ` 3.39 crore for CADA and ` 20.11crores for Flood Management and Coastal zone management against the total budgeted outlay of ` 465.80 crore for the water resources sector. A major share of the total outlay for the water resource sector (66.95 per cent) was budgeted for Major and Medium sector, followed by Minor Irrigation (21.37 per cent). The details are given in Appendix 2.63. Overall performance of the Irrigation sector was not encouraging
during the Annual Plan, besides poor utilization AIBP assistance and under performance in the implementation of Kuttanad Package also aggravated the situation.




Forestry and Wild Life


2.110 The forest cover of the Kerala State as per the 2011 report of FSI was 17300 with 1442 of very dense forest, 9394 of moderate dense forest and 6464 of open forest. This constitute 44.5 per cent of the total geographical area of the State, shows that the forest cover of Kerala increased over previous assessment. There is an increase of very dense forest cover to the tune of 419, moderate forest of 774 and open forest 536 As per FSI, the main reason for forest cover increase was due to the change in the area of the trees outside forests.In Kerala, Idukki District has the maximum forest cover of 3930 and Alappuha District has the lowest forest cover of 38 In terms of per centage of forest cover with total geographical area, Wayanad has the highest forest cover of 83.3 per cent, followed by Idukki and Pathanamthitta. The district wise details of forest cover in Kerala is given in Appendix 2.64.The estimated forest area (provisional) in Kerala is 11309.475 This includes 9107.206 of reserve forest, 364.473 of proposed reserves and 1837.796 of vested forests.


2.111 The total forest cover of the country as per India State of Forest Report 2011 is 78.29 million ha.which constitute 23.81 per cent of the geographical area of the country. In comparison to the 2009 assessment, there is a decrease of 367 in country’s forest cover. 15 states have registered aggregate increase of 5000 in their forest cover with Punjab leading with increase of 100 12 States mainly in (Northern Eastern States) have shown decreased the extent of 867 Decline of 281 in forest cover of Andra Pradesh is mainly attributed to cutting the 
Eucalyptus and other species. The state of Madhyapradesh has the largest forest cover in the country at 77700 followed by Arunachal Pradesh at 67410 As per the 2011 assessment, forest cover of Kerala is 17300


Natural Forest


2.112 The forest of Kerala is mainly classified into 5 major categories. The coverage of the plantations forestry is to the extent of 13.5 per cent of the total area. The major types of forests in Kerala are given in Appendix 2.65. The quantity of timber production in 2011-12 was 17283.23 cum (round log). The number of bamboos and reeds produced were 4.66 lakh and 93.91 lakh respectively. The sandal wood production was 52104.08 kg. The trend in production of forest produces from 2001-02 to 2011-12 (provisional) are shown in Appendix 2.67.


2.113 The forest policy of the state is guided by the 1988 National Forest Policy. In Kerala the strategies adopted for the development of forests envisages maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and reduction of degraded forests, conservation of bio-diversity, increasing productivity of forest, increasing substantially the forest cover through massive afforestation and developing participatory forest management. A comprehensive state forest policy to address the specific problems and issues related to the conservation of forests and biodiversity of the state as well as the livelihood needs of the forest development communities has been formulated during 2007. The Forest Management Policy of the state encompasses technology improvement, bio-diversity conservation and development of partnership with the forest dependent communities and fringe dwellers. Special thrust is also given for protecting species of plants and animals.


National Afforestation Programme


2.114 27 Forest Development Agencies were participating in the implementation of NAP. Till the end of March 2013, GoI has released ` 6517.73 lakh and the amount was fully utilized thereby afforesting an extent of 36011.77 ha degraded forest.


Forest Revenue


2.115 The forests contribute substantially to the non-tax revenue of the State. The revenue from the forestry sector by way of sale of timber and other forest products comes to ` 237.3 crore in 2012-13 and the revenue from the forest sector in 2011-12 was ` 220.67 crore, compared to the forest revenue for these two years, an incrase of 8 per cent over the previous year. Major portion of the forest revenue is from timber (Fig. 2.10). During 2012-13 ` 202.3 crore was the revenue from timber, which account for 85 per cent of the total forest revenue. The forest also supply non-wood forest produce valued at ` 5 crore annually. Forestry sector provides maximum employment opportunities to the rural masses including the tribes. Details are given in Appendix 2.68.


Fig 2.10

Forest Revenue in Kerala (2008-09 to 2012-13) ` in crores



Wild Life and Biosphere Reserve


2.116 The ‘Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary’ was constituted in 2009 with an extend of 7421.50 Ha (74.21 Sq.Km) area. Also a new wild life sanctuary by name “Kottiyoor Wild life Sanctuary” was constituted in 2011 with an extent of 30.38 The name of sanctuaries, National Park, Biosphere Reserves and other Protected Areasin Kerala is shown in the Appendix 2.69. The India Eco-development Project implemented in Periyar Tiger Reserve has got wide recognition nationally. The project was successful in weaning out forest offenders and make them part of conservation efforts. Presently, the Forest Department is trying to emulate the Periyar model in the management of all the PAs of the State. During 2011-12, an amount of ` 28 crore was earmarked under various plan schemes for protected area management and out of which ` 22 crore were utilized.


General Forestry


2.117 Natural Forests in Kerala are being managed mainly for sustaining the life support systems and biodiversity conservation. During 2011-12 also, no timber was extracted from the natural forests by way of clear felling or selection felling. Only timber from wind fallen trees was extracted wherever it is economically viable. Under ‘Hardwood’ species 276.9 ha new areas was raised and 419 ha was maintained during the year 2012-13. Also under industrial plantation, 703ha were newly planted and 852 ha were maintained. Under the NTFP including medicinal plantation,15 ha new areas was raised and 938 ha were maintained.


Performance review under XIth Plan and Annual Plan 2012-13


2.118 The total state plan outlay during XIth plan under forestry sector was ` 288.87 crore and the expenditure was ` 251.05 crore (87.15 per cent). In addition an amount of ` 114.58 crore was provided for centrally sponsored schemes and the expenditure reported was ` 67.57 crore (59 per cent). The state plan expenditure during 2012-13is ` 100.3 crore against the budgeted outlay of ` 114.1crore, which includes forest protection with an expenditure of ` 17.96 crore, strengthening bio-diversity conservation and management of protected area with `19.15crore, strengthening of infrastructure facilities with ` 6.37crore for roads and buildings, improving productivity of Plantation with ` 6.6 crore, extension forestry with ` 7.11 crore and 13th Finance Commission Award with ` 27 crore. Under central sector scheme the expenditure reported was 31 per cent of the budgeted outlay. The outlay
and expenditure for various schemes implemented in the Forestry sector is shown in Appendix 2.70.
The major physical achievements during 2012-13 were distribution of seedlings/plants under Harithakeralam, Harithatheeram and VazhiyoraThanal programme is 88.16 lakh, construction of cairns 2064 numbers, construction of kayyala 3.49 km., construction of fire line 3462 km., regeneration denuded forest 16 ha., plantation raised 1209 ha, improvement of forest roads 97 km. and launching the project Suvarnodhyanam at Nedumbasseri in 4 ha. area. 


Key initiatives during 2013-14


2.119 Key initiatives of the department during 2013-14 are establishment of Zoological Park in Puthur, Thrissur District; renovation of forest museum at PTP Nagar, Thiruvananthapuram as National history museum, establishing orchidarium at Vagamon in Idukki District, setting up elephant care centre at Kottur, Kappukode in Thiruvananthapuram District, establishing Gandhi smrithivanam and eco-tourism project at Purakkad in Alappuzha District, establishment of new forest stations and model forest stations, establishment of Kottiyoor Wildlife Sanctuary, initiate actions for mechanization of forestry works and forest watershed based management units, longterm monitory programme for Periyar Tiger Reserve, Vanadeepthi programme etc.


Management of Non -Wood Forest Produce (NWFP)


2.120 The quantities of bamboo and reed annually harvested are at a level of 40-50 thousand tonnes of bamboo and 80-100 thousand tonnes of reeds.The productivity and management of NWFPs are to be improved through sustainable and scientific management by adopting improved methods of harvesting, processing, value addition and marketing. Under the scheme Management of NWFPs, new NWFP species were planted at an area of 15 ha. Also maintenance of NWFP plantations of different species was done at an area of 938ha. A new brand for value added products of NWFP known as “Vanasree” was developed and 22 sales outlets of vanasree products were established in the State. 


Afforestation Outside Forest Area


2.121 The objective of the programme is to increase tree cover in non-forest areas to achieve the ideal target of 33.3 per cent of forest cover. The department have embarked on massive afforestation programme outside forest areas since 2007 with novel ideas. The massive afforestation programme launched outside the forest areas are ‘Entemaramprogramme, ‘Nammudemaramprogramme, Vazhiyorathanal programme, Harithatheeram programme and Harithakeralam programme’. The total number of seedlings distributed/planted under the various programmes upto 31-03-2013 are 323.5 lakh. The details of seedlings distributed under these programmes are given in Appendix 2.71. The sustainability of the trees planted has to be ensured. More details under this sector is shown in Appendix 2.66






2.122 One important cause of environmental destruction is inequitable consumption of resources and sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being. Lack of integrated environmental planning also shares the responsibility for environmental deterioration in the country. Often departments, municipalities, local authorities and industries use environmental resources according to the priorities of their individual sectors, without much regard to the overall needs of the state or the question of sustainability. To proactively manage environmental resources, environmental resource planning will have to be made a central component of policy making in the state. The fragile nature of ecosystem in Kerala is a concern and many natural and man-made causes pose a great threat to its biodiversity. About 159 species of flowering plants are threatened and same is the case with hundreds of animal species. The major man made causes include collection of firewood, illicit felling of trees, cattle grazing, encroachments, poaching, illegal sand mining, mass tourism soil, water and land contamination. The summary of state wise/Union Territory wise status of highly polluting industries in 17 categories indicated that in Kerala of the total of 49 industries, 24 are complying with standards, 8 are not complying and 17 are closed down. Among the 29 grossly polluting industries in the state discharging their effluents in rivers and lakes (as on 31st March 2011), 20 are complying, 2 are not complying and 7 are closed down.Under the Environment Surveillance(ESS) Scheme of Central Pollution Control Board, highly polluting industries in 17 categories were selected through usage of ESS software especially developed for inspections. In Kerala 12 industries were subjected to ESS inspections and based on inspection reports, directions/ advices are issued to the concerned SPCBs/industries depending upon severity of violations (Source :CPCB Annual Report, 2011-12). The air quality parameters of major cities of Kerala (2011-12) is shown in Appendix 2.72.




2.123 The Kerala State Biodiversity Board was constituted in 2005 with vision of Conservation of biodiversity and its sustainable utilization for the benefit of human beings. Peoples Bio Diversity Register is a comprehensive data base recording people’s traditional knowledge and insight of the status, uses, history, ongoing changes and forces driving these changes on the biological diversity resources of their own localitiesThe Biodiversity Board has been actively involved with the preparation of Plant Biodiversity Registers(PBR) in the LSGs. A number 670 PBR have been completed till March 2013. The Board has also achieved the constitution of Biodiversity Management Committees in all the 978 panchayats, 60 municipalities and 5 Corporations in the state.


2.124 The increased pressure on land for more resources and accelerated human interventions in the form of mining, quarrying, filling of low lands along with all the ingredients like high rainfall, undulating topography etc. has led to significant land modifications influencing the biophysical system and adversely affecting the ecological security and environmental stability. Concerted efforts are needed to educate the people on the importance of environmental protection and for redressing the complaints of the public on pollution problems and environmental issues.




Co- operation & Agricultural Finance


2.125 The co-operative movement in Kerala has a solid foundation and impressive record in terms of strength and financial stability and it is one of the most vibrant cooperative movements in the country. There are 14205 co-operative societies were functioning under the Registrar of Co-operative Societies. Details are given Appendix 2.73.The major physical achievements in the sector during 2013 are shown in Appendix 2.74. TheIntegrated Co-operative Development Project (ICDP) was successfully implemented in all districts and the second phase of ICDP in Wayanad district was completed in March2013 and action is being taken to implement the second phase of ICDP in Idukki, Palakkad and Trichur districts.

Support by National Cooperative Development Corporation

2.126 As on 31.3.2013, the cumulative financial assistance of the NCDC was 4774.78 crores in Kerala. Types of NCDC Assistance are shown in Appendix 2.75. During the fiscal 2012-13, Kerala stood 4th in all India standing for sanction and 3rd for disbursement of NCDC’s financial assistance to States. Sanctions and release of NCDC funds to the state of Kerala for 2012-13 was ` 541.94 crore and ` 358.84 crore, respectively contributing around 7.55 per cent of total sanctions and 7.38 per cent of total release made by NCDC, countrywide. Around 300 cooperatives in Kerala were benefitted by NCDC funding through State Govt /Direct funding scheme during 2012-13 either through sanctions/ disbursement of funds. Almost all sectors of Agriculture & allied activities including short term agriculture credit, marketing of agriculture produce, distribution of fertilisers& inputs, consumer cooperatives, Processing activities, storage/ go downs, infrastructure creation, service sector, industrial cooperatives, Labour cooperatives and weaker section programme like Fisheries, SC/ST etc. were covered by NCDC finance in the state during 2012-13.


2.127 Activity wise and year wise sanction and release of assistance from NCDC are shown in Appendix 2.76. The Year-Wise amount released by NCDC from 1962-63 to 2012-13 with rate of interest is given in Appendix 2.77. The interest rate of NCDC loans ranged from 10.40 per cent to 12.5 per cent in 2012-13. The interest rate of NCDC loan is referred as one of the highest rates reported. Reduction in rate seems to be essential to avail more support from NCDC


Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS)


2.128 The Co-operative Credit structure in Kerala comprises of 1636 Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS) and 63 affiliated Primary Co-operative Agricultural and Rural Development Banks supported by the Central and Apex Co-operative banks. As on 31.3.2013, there were 1636 PACS out of which 617 were running in loss and 69 societies were threatening under liquidation. The PACS are functioning with a paid up share capital of `1231.21crores and reserves of ` 2193.41crores. The co-operatives during the year under report were encouraging. The total loan disbursed during 2012-13 was ` 82410.64 crores against that of ` 46689.63 crores in 2011-12. Compared to the previous year, there as increase in the disbursement of short term and medium term and long term loans.


2.129 The Selected indicators of the credit operations of the Primary Agricultural Credit Societies show that, during 2012-13, deposits of the societies increased to ` 56942.33 crores as against
` 39856.86 crores during 2011-12. The average deposit per member is increased to ` 11642 from last year’s level of ` 8251.94. The average working capital position of the societies declined to ` 4309.35 lakh against ` 4732.23 lakh during 2011-12. Selected indicators and credit operations of PACS are given in Appendix 2.78 and Appendix 2.79.


Deposit Mobilisation Campaign by Co-operative Societies


2.130 Deposit Mobilisation campaigns by co-operative credit institutions continued during the year under report also. The deposit mobilisation by the Co-peratives have shown a decreasing trend over the years. During the period under review, the co-operatives could mobilize `5194.36crore as against the target of ` 4500 crores, showing 115.43 per cent of increase, which was 126.3 per cent in the previous year. Year wise target and achievement is given in Appendix 2.80.


Agricultural Finance


2.131 Agency-wise disbursement of the annual credit flow in the state reveals that out of total disbursal of priority sector advances, commercial banks stood at the first place disbursing ` 43135 crore (56.10 per cent) in 2012-13, followed by Co-operative Banks (36.63 per cent), RRBs (6.96 per cent) and others (0.30 per cent). In Agriculture lending also commercial banks dominated by disbursing ` 25780 crore (68.36 per cent) followed by Co-operative Banks (22.69 per cent) and RRBs (8.94 per cent). Details are given in Appendix 2.81.

2.132 The credit flow to agriculture sector during the last 5 years is given in Table 2.6 The share of production credit has declined by 2 per cent while investment credit increased by 2 per cent during 2012-13, compared to the previous year. The overall credit to agriculture sector has increased by 9.92 per cent over the previous year. The improvement in investment credit is a welcome development, eventhough on absolute term this is less than the investment credit disbursed in 2010-11.


Table 2.6

Production and Investment Credit to Agriculture Sector (` crores)



Production Credit Investment Credit Total


14605 (78%)

4228 (22%)



18817 (78%)

5307 (22%)



23512 (82%)

5141 (18%)




3901 (11%)




5059 (13%)


Source: SLBC


Long Term Credit


2.133 A network consisting of the Kerala State Co-operative Agricultural and Rural Development Bank (KSCARDB) at the Apex and 63 Primary Co-operative Agricultural and Rural Development Banks at Taluk Level is responsible for long term credit disbursement for Rural Development in the State. Various activities covered by KSCARDB’s lending include Minor Irrigation, Plantation and Horticulture, Agriculture Machinery , Land Development, Poultry, Fisheries etc where as under ordinary loan include construction of wells, tanks, construction of Godowns/cattle sheds, Barbed wire or stone fencing, construction of drainage channels etc. The Bank raises funds through floating of debentures issued on Government guarantee. Purpose wise classification of long term loans issued by Primary Co-operatives Agriculture and Rural Development banks is shown in Appendix 2.82.


Refinance Support by NABARD

2.134 In Kerala the total refinance disbursement from NABARD was ` 2744.39 crores during 2012-13. Commercial Banks accounted for the highest share of 66.53 per cent in the total refinance disbursed in the state. This was followed by Kerala State Co-operative Agricultural Rural Development Bank ` 682.43crore (24.87 per cent) and RRBs. The disbursement of RRBs registered a lowest of 8.61 per cent. Agency wise and purpose wise disbursement of refinance assistance by NABARD in Kerala is given in Appendix 2.83 and Appendix 2.84.


2.135 The purpose-wise analysis of the refinance by NABARD reveals that as against the previous years, the major share of assistance was availed by non farm sector (48.17 per cent) followed by plantation and horticulture sector (38.4 per cent). Other major schemes availed refinance support was minor irrigation, SHGs and land development, dairy Development etc. The sectors like fisheries and poultry, which are very important in the rural economy of Kerala, were neglected during 2012-13 from the disbursement of refinance by NABARD.


Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)


2.136 The RIDF was set up in NABARD with contribution from the Commercial banks which were not able to fulfill the commitment of channelising at least 18 per cent of their total lending to agriculture. RIDF has been instrumental in strengthening the rural infrastructure in the State. From RIDF I to XVII total sanction and disbursement stands ` 158321 crores and ` 111831.49 crore respectively as on 31-03-2013 in India.


2.137 Kerala has been receiving assistance under RIDF for the last fifteen years. The major projects for which RIDF has been disbursed include watershed development projects, rural bridges, rural roads, reclamation of waterlogged area, inland navigation, tourism oriented roads and rural market yards. In Kerala the cumulative sanction and disbursement as on 31-03-2013 was ` 5217.42 crores and ` 3135.4 crores respectively. During the XVII tranche an amount of `738.75 crores was sanctioned and `147.76 crores was disbursed. The tranche wise sanction and disbursement under RIDF are shown in Appendix 2.85.



Rural Development Programmes


2.138 Participatory Development and Decentralization are the main features of Rural Development in Kerala focusing on people centered inclusive growth. Since poverty and unemployment are inter related and form a vicious circle, the major CSS of the Government of India under Rural Development focus on gainful wage employment as well as self employment opportunities to the poor so as to improve their livelihood conditions. A brief review of the financial and physical performance of these CSS are given in the following paragraphs.


The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment
Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP)


2.139 The National Rural Employment Guaranatee Act 2005 seeks to enhance the livelihood security of the households in rural areas of the country by providing atleast one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment to every house hold whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work would be entitled to get registered with the Grama Panchayat and get a job card through the Grama Panchayat. Every registered household would be entitled to get atleast hundred days guaranteed wage employment during a year. If the eligible applicant is not provided employment within 15 days of receipt of application or from the date from which the applicant seeks employment (in the advance applications), he or she shall be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance, in cash. 


2.140 The financial achievement under MGNREGP during 2012-13 was ` 1,41,199.10 crore which is 99 per cent of the total release during the year. The total employment in terms of mandays generated during this period was 7.8 crore. The physical and Financial progress of the programme 2013-

14 till October 2013 is given in Appendix 2.86, 2.87 and 2.88.


Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) ( 25 per cent State Share) 


2.141 The objective of IAY is primarily to provide grant for construction of houses to members of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded labourers and also to non SC/ST rural poor below the poverty line. Under this scheme Central and State Government shares the fund in the ratio of 75:25. Government of India has revised the unit cost of IAY houses from ` 45000/- to Rs.70000/-in plain areas and from ` 48500 to ` 75000/- in hilly difficult areas w.e.f. April 2013onwards. The State Government have enhanced the unit cost to ` 2 lakhs for SC and General Categories and ` 2.5 lakh for ST Categories. The additional amount over and above the unit cost fixed by the Government of India is to be met by Grama-Block-District Panchayats in the ratio of 25:50:25. As the three tier Panchayaths are not in a position to meet the additional amount, State Government has decided to provide ` 75000/- per house to all categories during the year 2012-13 and ` 50000/- during 2013-14. 3 per cent of the funds have been earmarked for the benefit of disabled persons below poverty line. Financial and physical achievements of IAY up to October 2013 is shown in Appendix 2.89 and 2.90.

Rural Infrastructure Development – PMGSY


2.142 PMGSY is a 100 per cent CSS to build up rural infrastructure with the objective of facilitating a higher degree of rural – urban integration and for achieving an even pattern of growth for the poor and disadvantaged sections of the society. The spirit and the objective of PMGSY is to provide good all-weather road connectivity to the unconnected Habitations.


2.143 Since Government of India funds can be utilized only for the actual estimated cost of construction of roads under scheme, state support to PMGSY for meeting tender excess, shifting of utilities and maintenance provision for assets already created was included in the state budget from the financial year 2010-11 onwards. The financial and physical achievements are shown in  Appendix 2.91.



Food security


2.144 Food security ensures economic and social access to adequate food for all persons in the country at all times, in pursuance of their fundamental right to live with dignity. Public Distribution System (PDS) assures food security to people, particularly to Kerala, a State which has a very high deficit in production of food grains; Kerala produces only 15 per cent of actual requirement.  Necessarily, PDS has a critical and functional role in Kerala.


2.145 Public Distribution System was launched in Kerala in 1962 with the implementation of the Kerala Rationing Order. Timely lifting of commodities allocated from the Central pool and ensuring distribution of the same through more than 14000 ration shops and ensuring that it occurs timely and effectively is a major responsibility of the PDS. Kerala made pioneering achievements in the implementation of a Universal Rationing System. Approach to the Twelfth Five Year Plan undertakes reforms to plug the leakages in the PDS such as end to end automation of the entire PDS chain, introduction of GPS tracking, activating vigilance committees etc across the state.


2.146 Number of ration cardholders in the State increased by 3 per cent and reached 81 lakh in 2012-13 from 78.6 lakh of 2011-12. Similarly number of APL cardholders also increased to 59.25 lakh in 2012-13, which was 58.24 lakh during 2011-12. There were 14.56 lakh BPL cardholders and 5.92 lakh Anthyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) card holders in 2012-13.


2.147 During 2012-13 rice allotment to APL cardholders was 6.2 lakh MT and BPL card holders 4 lakh MT. At the same period rice allotment to AAY card holders was 2.5 lakh MT. Supply price of rice for APL and BPL during 2012-13 was ` 8.90 and ` 1 respectively and that of wheat is `6.70 for APL and ` 2 for BPL. Public Distribution System, Kerala profile; 2007-08 to 2012-13 is given in Appendix 2.92
and details of distribution of rice, wheat, kerosene and sugar through PDS from 2007-08 to 2012-13 is shown in Appendix 2.93.


Food grain at Rs.2/kg and Re.1/kg


2.148 Govt. of Kerala approved a scheme for proving food grain @ ` 2/kg to all prescribed special category of beneficiaries subject to certain conditions in January 2011. All BPL and APL beneficiaries in the state were provided with rice and wheat @ ` 2/kg in 2012-13. Since 1st September 2011, the State Govt. has started to implement schemes for issuing rice @ ` 1/kg to all BPL beneficiaries in the state. Food grain distribution details under PDS for BPL and APL from 1-09-2012 to 31-05-2013 is shown in Appendix 2.94.


Anthyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) & Annapoorna Scheme (ANP)


2.149 The scheme is to provide 35 kg of rice per month to the poorest of the poor families under BPL and is being implemented in the State since 25-12-2001. In 2012-13 also the allotment of rice under AAY continued at the level of 250260 MT. Govt. of India supplies food grains under AAY to the state @ ` 3/kg and the State Govt. inturn provides it to the beneficiaries at the subsidized rate of ` 1/kg.


2.150 Annapoorna scheme provides 10kg of rice free of cost per month to destitutesof the age of 65 years and above who are not in receipt of any of the pensions from the Govt.There are only 32152 ANP cardholders in the State as on 31-03-2013. Details of distribution of food grains under AAY and ANP schemes during 2012-13 are given in Appendix 2.95.


Central Allotment of Sugar and Kerosene


2.151 Allotment of sugar to Kerala in 2012-13 was 58076 MT and that of Kerosene, 125196 KL. Allotment of sugar is restricted to BPL/AAY card holders.


Kerala State Civil Supplies Corporation (Supplyco)


2.152 Kerala State has one of the best Public Distribution System networks in India. Kerala State Civil Supplies Corporation being the second line of Public Distribution System is very instrumental in stabilising the prices of essential commodities in theState. It was set up in 1974 to provide food security to the State.


2.153 Kerala, being a consumer oriented State, controlling the undue rise in prices is not at all possible without a powerful public distribution system that intervenes the open market effectively throughout the year. The system ensures the distribution of essential items through Fair Price shops and Supplyco outlets to reach every common man unlike in other states. 


2.154 Supplyco has its headquarters in Kochi and operates through 5 regional offices, 56 depots and many outlets. Details of outlet are given in Appendix 2.96. Retailing of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) at lower price, conducting special fairs for arresting the undue rice in prices during festival seasons, retailing of medicines by opening medical stores, procurement of paddy, arranging process of wheat and distribution of its products, acting as dealer of petroleum products like kerosene, petrol, diesel and LPG and also acting as nodal agency to implement the progremmes of Government Of India in the state to start Micro Biology Lab and Food Processing Unit. The sales turnover of the corporation has increased in 2012-13 to ` 3015 crore from ` 2378.8 crore in 2011-12.


Mid-day Meal Programme


2.155 Mid-day Meal Programme in schools is implemented in the State with the financial support of State govt. and Central assistance. The programme was introduced in 1995 by the Ministry of 
Human Resources Development, Government Of India, to provide nutritional support to primary school going children and to boost universalisation of primary education by increasing enrollment, retention and attendance.


2.156 Supplyco is entrusted for providing commodities to mid-day meal programme in the State. The required quantity of rice is taken from Food Corporation of India and pulses from the stock of Supplyco. During 2012-13, the Corporation supplied 471686.4 Qtls of rice, 283721.2 Qtls of special rice and 26525.9 Qtls of pulses to 12638 schools, benefiting 26.33 lakh children. The cost of the food grains is met by Education Department. Number of children benefitted from the mid-day meal programme is given in fig 2.11 and details of supply of food grains from 2007-08 to 2012-13 is shown in Appendix 2.97.


Fig 2.11

Mid-day Meal Programme







While agricultural self sufficiency may not be possible in Kerala, over dependence on other states for consumption of food is not advisable. Concerted efforts are being made to improve productivity
in agriculture and allied sector. Better soil and water management, increased focus on organic farming, vegetable cultivation, livestock rearing, replanting and rejuvenation of coconut gardens, all this require good coordination and targetted planning and implementation by all agencies involved. Access to affordable finance for farmers is also a necessity to create viable farms. Innovative, yet environmentally friendly techniques will need to be encouraged among the farming community so that higher productivity is achieved. The well being of Kerala depends to a large extent on the well being of its rural sector and economic development must necessarily have a rural focus. Food security and sustainable livelihood options for fishermen,and other vulnerable sections of people who depend on agricultural income, will continue to be a major priority for Kerala..